Alcoholism Liver Damage and Cannabis: A Natural Way to Heal the Liver

It is estimated that 17.6 million Americans have a problem with Alcohol.  This problem can lead to all sorts of problems with work, family and friends just to name a few.  One side effect of alcohol is liver damage.  Alcohol can damage or destroy liver cells.  Scientists have been hard at work looking for ways to repair liver cells.  Below you will find studies involving cannabis and the liver.  Please feel free to share the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

Alcohol and Substance Abuse (Background On Liver Damage)
Alcoholic liver disease is an important cause of cirrhosis, liver-associated death, and need for liver transplant. Up to 50% of recipients use some alcohol, and perhaps 10% drink addictively. Careful evaluation by an addiction medicine specialist is the best predictive instrument before transplant surgery, whereas the 6-month rule lacks sensitivity and specificity. Addictive drinking, but not minor slips, is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard therapy for alcoholism in alcoholics waiting for a transplant or for those who have undergone a transplant. Stably abstinent, methadone-maintained opiate-dependent patients should continue methadone; are generally good candidates for liver transplant; and show low relapse rates. Pre- and post-transplant smoking rates are high and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant teams should encourage smoking cessation treatments. Marijuana use in liver transplant recipients is common, although risks associated with this practice are unknown.

Hyperactivation of Anandamide Synthesis and Regulation of Cell-Cycle Progression Via Cannabinoid Type 1 (CB1) Receptors In the Regenerating Liver
The mammalian liver regenerates upon tissue loss… Endocannabinoids acting via cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB(1)R) promote neural progenitor cell proliferation, and in the liver they promote lipogenesis. These findings suggest the involvement of CB(1)R in the control of liver regeneration.”

The Endocannabinoid System As A Key Mediator During Liver Diseases: New Insights and Therapeutic Openings
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several lesions such as alcoholic and metabolic steatosis, liver fibrogenesis, or circulatory failure associated with cirrhosis. data obtained with peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists give real hopes in the development of active CB(1) molecules devoid of central adverse effects. CB(2) -selective molecules may also offer novel perspectives for the treatment of liver diseases, and their clinical development is clearly awaited. Whether combined treatment with a peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonist and a CB(2) agonist might result in an increased therapeutic potential will warrant further investigation.”

Beneficial Paracrine Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 On Liver Injury and Regeneration
‎”Beneficial paracrine effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 on liver injury and regeneration…CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration following acute insult, via distinct paracrine mechanisms involving hepatic myofibroblasts. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoprotective (protects liver) properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.”

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Protect Against Alcoholic Liver Disease By Regulating Kupffer Cell Polarization In Mice.
‎”Cannabinoid CB2 receptors protect against alcoholic liver disease by regulating Kupffer cell polarization in mice…These data identify CB2 agonists as potential therapeutic agents for the management of alcoholic liver disease.”

Annabinoids and Capsaicin Improve Liver Function Following Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Injury In Mice
‎”We have shown the beneficial effects of cannabinoids in a murine model of hepatic encephalopathy following thioacetamide and now report their effects on the liver injury.The similar pattern found between the effect of cannabinoids and their antagonists on brain and liver indicated that the therapeutic effect might be directed by the improvement in both organs through CB2 receptors and/or TRPV1 receptors. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic potential.”

Cannabis Less Harmful Than Current Drug Therapies?

Many when faced with a serious illness fight for their life but ironically are prescribed medications that in fact not only cause harm but also are capable of taking their life.  Many prescription side effects are quite lengthy.  Those that are on prescriptions long-term end up requiring even more medication down the line to combat the side effects from the first drug.  With all that in mind patients are looking for a safer alternative solution.

From cancers to anxiety many prescribed therapies are not only dangerous but can cause death.  Chemotherapy has come a long way from the early days but it is still a drug that ravages the body.  By contrast research has shown that cannabinoid therapies induce programmed cell death in cancerous cells.  Cannabinoids as is widely known are praised for their ability to alleviate without any reported deaths throughout its historic, several thousand year use.

Although the official stance from the government is that cannabis has no accepted medical value science tells us otherwise.  Below you will see a study that weighs the harm of accepted drug therapies such as opioids.  As always I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Prescribing Cannabis For Harm Reduction 2012
Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.

Cannabis, Cancer And Children:Why We Must Give Parents A Choice

There is something special about children that brings a smile.  Some parents wait a long time to be able to have that special time to cradle their child, gazing into their eyes.  Imagine being the parents faced with the reality that your child has cancer.  For over 10,000 parents each year that is the case.  Vigilantly staying by their child’s side through countless shots, painful procedures, body wrenching medications and worst of all watching as their child withers away before their eyes.  The spark slowly going out leaving behind a weak body.  Most would try anything to save their baby.  

Current therapies  such as chemotherapy are not precise measures.  Rates of success in comparisson with side effects make some wonder why alternatives are being stifled.    In contrast there is mounting evidence of the anti-tumor effects of cannabis compounds.  Cannabis has been praised for its large window of error since cannabis does not cause death.

Most in the cannabis community know who Cashy Hyde is.  He is the little boy who’s father treated him with cannabis oil and who today is cancer free.  Cashy has undergone extensive treatments that ravaged his tiny body.  His father watched as the light faded and decided to save his son.  He fed Cashy Rick Simpson Method Cannabis Oil through his feeding tube and miraculously watched his son bounce back to life.  Within days they noticed a difference.

Cashy is not alone.  There are millions of others that have been helped and cured with cannabis.  The discussion of cannabis is beyond smoke.  Cannabis research has shown that by targeting the Endocannabinoid system with the right combinations of compounds you will receive the desired effects including inducing cell death in cancer.

With so much more scientific medical research as proof the majority of the country is asking why we still pursue prohibition with a vengeance.  California has been helping patients since 1996.  Last year we saw a flood of stories where federal agencies terrorized local communities with their SWAT style raids.  In doing so they cut off supply of much needed medicine for patients just like Cashy.

We must do something to give parents an option to save their children.  When parents are told there is nothing more that can be done should we really take away hope.  Should we incarcerate parents for possessing a plant, one that science proves is lifesaving?  We need to bring sanity back into the equation.  We must change the laws.  Me must challenge the “way its always been”.  It is time to allow parents the right to decide for their children.  Several states have proposed or pending legislation.  Contact your state representatives and urge them to help change the future for our children.

Newly Released Studies Show Protection and Regeneration of Brain Cells with Cannabis Therapies

There are over 1.7 million cases of severe brain injury that are reported each year.  These injuries can be life altering for many but thanks to the hard work from the science and medical communities we are learning more about new treatment options.  Cannabis has been discovered to help with cell regeneration and repair in the brain.  Below you will see newly published studies where  cannabis has been applied to help with brain injuries. Truly exciting!!   As always I encourage all to do their own research as well and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Early Survival of Comatose Patients After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury With the Dual Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist KN38-7271
Despite many drug trials, no substance has yet been identified that improves the outcome of severe head injury. The dual cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist KN38-7271 mediates potent neuroprotection in animal models. We describe here the first randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical phase IIa proof-of-concept trial to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and potential efficacy of a cannabinoid receptor agonist in humans.  Conclusions KN38-7271 appeared beneficial in the acute early phase of the comatose patient after a head injury. Its use was safe and well tolerated by patients.

Cannabinoids As Neuroprotective Agents In Traumatic Brain Injury
Cannabinoids of all classes have the ability to protect neurons from a variety of insults that are believed to underlie delayed neuronal death after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including excitotoxicity, calcium influx, free radical formation and neuroinflammation.

Cannabidiol Administration After Hypoxia-Ischemia To Newborn Rats Reduces Long-Term Brain Injury and Restores Neurobehavioral Function 2012
Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI).   In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery.

Cannabidiol Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Functional Recovery After Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia In Newborn Pigs 2011
Newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) received i.v. cannabidiol (HI + CBD) or vehicle (HI + VEH). In HI + VEH, 72 h post-HI brain activity as assessed by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) had only recovered to 42 ± 9% of baseline, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters remained lower than normal, and neurobehavioral performance was abnormal (27.8 ± 2.3 points, normal 36).   In conclusion, post-HI administration of CBD protects neurons and astrocytes, leading to histological, functional, biochemical, and neurobehavioral improvements.
 

Cannabis Has Cancer In The Cross-Hairs. Utilizing The Endocannabinoid System To Kill Cancer

It seems that these days the word cancer is everywhere.  From billboards encouraging donations to charities to news headlines to loved one effected by cancer most people are familiar.  There are more than 200 different types of cancer that can develop in over 60 different organs in the body.  Current therapies include poisoning the body in hopes that it will also kill the cancer.  Cannabis is used to help counteract the side effects of these therapies.  However new research points to cannabis as the compounds that can actually cause cancer cell death, essentially curing cancer.  There are countless studies that have been published showing the benefits of using the endocannabinoid system to target cancer cells with cannabinoids.  From that research we have found where using the endocannabinoid system has proven vital in fighting cancer.  Below you will see several studies that show how using the endocannabinoid system can be used in targeting cancer.  Please feel free to share and help others see that using cannabis is beyond the smoke.  I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in Cancer-Potential Therapeutic Target?
Endogenous arachidonic acid metabolites with properties similar to compounds of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, the so-called endocannabinoids, have effects on various types of cancer.    Remarkably, these effects may be selective for the cancer cells, while normal cells and tissues are spared. Such apparent tumor cell selectivity makes the endocannabinoid system an attractive potential target for cancer therapy.

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System For the Treatment of Cancer–A Practical View
In recent years, considerable interest has been generated by findings that cannabinoids not only have useful palliative effects, but also can affect the viability and invasivity of a variety of different cancer cells.   It is concluded that cannabinoids (or agents modulating the endogenous cannabinoid system) are an attractive target for drug development in the cancer area….

The Endocannabinoid System As A Target For the Development of New Drugs For Cancer Therapy
Studies on the main bioactive components of Cannabis sativa, the cannabinoids, and particularly (THC), led to the discovery of a new endogenous signalling system that controls several physiological and pathological conditions: the endocannabinoid system. Recently, evidence has accumulated indicating that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors by either THC or the endocannabinoids influence the intracellular events controlling the proliferation and apoptosis(cell death) of numerous types of cancer cells, thereby leading to anti-tumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. This evidence is reviewed here and suggests that future anti-cancer therapy might be developed from our knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system controls the growth and metastasis of malignant cells.

Endocannabinoid System Modulation In Cancer Biology and Therapy
Endocannabinoid system modulation in cancer biology and therapy. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system… led to the development of therapeutic agents related to either the stimulation or antagonism of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors… evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors, which share the useful property to discern between tumor cells and their non-transformed counterparts, could represent novel tumor-selective tools to treat cancer in addition to their already exploited use as palliative drugs.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
“Use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer therapy as palliative and curative agents… Cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa)… development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Changes in the Endocannabinoid System May Give Insight into new and Effective Treatments for Cancer
Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for centuries… cannabinoids might be effective anti-tumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer… Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system may be dysregulated in a number of cancers… the endocannabinoid system exerts a myriad of effects on tumor cell growth, progression, angiogenesis, and migration. With a notable few exceptions, targeting the endocannabinoid system with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or increase the endogenous levels of AEA may prove to have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various cancers.

Save Your Ass, Smoke Some Grass

When people think of grass, weed, pot or cannabis they think of hippies and parties.  What most people don’t think about is that cannabis is showing real promise, on the molecular level, in fighting cancers.  People of all walks have been touched by cancer.  Most people know of someone, has had a loved one go through it or they themselves have experienced cancer.  It is no wonder then that science and medicine have been working hard to find a cure.  Cannabis research has been taking notice especially for its anti-cancer discoveries.   Over 140,000 new cases were reported for colon and rectal cancers with 51,000 reported deaths.  Below you will see studies where cannabis has been examined in the context of colorectal cancers.  As always please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Single Nucleotide Change in the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CNR1) Gene in Colorectal Cancer Outcome
The cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR-1) and endogenous agonists of this receptor are present in the central and peripheral nervous systems including the gastrointestinal nervous system.Indeed nontumor paired colorectal tissues showed nucleotide change. A large number of patients with mutation in the CNR1 gene were observed. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of further studies in the use of cannabinoid analogs as receptor ligands to analyze potential therapeutic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis(programmed cell death) through Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells
We show that the CB1 receptor was mainly expressed in human normal colonic epithelium whereas tumor tissue was strongly positive for the CB2 receptor.  The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF-α acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.

Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death At A Molecular Level
Balanced apoptosis is crucial in development and homeostasis, and all multicellular organisms have a physiologically programmed continuum of pathways to apoptotic cell death. Further studies of the control at the molecular level of key components and promoters/suppressors of apoptosis may provide better approaches to treatment of autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Many important questions remain regarding the advantages of modifying apoptotic programs in clinical situations.

Beyond The Smoke: The Anticancer Properties Of Cannabis

Cannabis has many amazing healing properties that utilize the endocannabinoid system to reach target areas.  Scientists use this knowledge to target certain aspects of a condition depending on the symptoms.  It is well known that cannabis use can help cancer patients during the course of their battle, from increased appetite to pain relief.  Scientists have been uncovering cannabis’ anticancer effects as well.  This promising research is clearing the way so that one day we will fully understand this miracle plant.  Below are studies where science has looked at cannabis therapy when applied to cancer cells.  Please feel free to share and as always I encourage all to do their own research.  Please note that a lot of these are NEW 2012 released research which is really exciting! ~ Cherry Girl

CANNABIDIOL AS POTENTIAL ANTICANCER DRUG
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumorigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors.

Non-THC Cannabinoids Counteract Prostate Carcinoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo: Pro-Apoptotic Effects and Underlying Mechanisms 2012
Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell…In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. Conclusions. These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma.

Role of Lipid Rafts/Caveolae in the Anticancer Effect of Endocannabinoids 2012
The endocannabinoid system comprises the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and the whole apparatus… drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system might be used to retard or block cancer growth… Perturbation of lipid rafts/caveolae may in fact represent a useful tool for the development of a novel therapy for endocannabinoids-related diseases, such as cancer.

Update On the Endocannabinoid System As An Anticancer Target
Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) could offer an attractive antitumor target.  One direction that should be pursued in antitumor therapy is to select compounds with reduced psychoactivity. This is known to be connected to the CB1 receptor; thus, targeting the CB2 receptor is a popular objective. CB1 receptors could be maintained as a target to design new compounds, and mixed CB1-CB2 ligands could be effective if they are able to not cross the BBB. Furthermore, targeting the ECS with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or inhibitors of endogenous degrading systems such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors may have relevant therapeutic impact on tumor growth. Additional studies into the downstream consequences of endocannabinoid treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors expressed by tumour cells may offer a novel strategy to treat cancer. In this chapter we review the more recent results generating interest in the field of cannabinoids and cancer, and provide novel suggestions for the development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Inhibitory Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Stimulation on Tumor Growth and Metastatic Spreading: Actions on Signals Involved in Angiogenesis and Metastasis
Stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors by 2-methyl-arachidonyl-2′-fluoro-ethylamide (Met-F-AEA) inhibits the growth of a rat thyroid cancer cell-derived tumor in athymic mice by inhibiting the activity of the oncogene product p21ras.  Three weeks from the paw injection of 3LL cells, Met-F-AEA reduced significantly the number of metastatic nodes, in a way antagonized by SR141716A. Our findings indicate that CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Good News For CB1 Receptors: Endogenous Agonists Are in the Right Place
Good news for CB1 receptors: endogenous agonists are in the right place” and “CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Cannabis: Your Heart Hero

More and more Americans are being classified as obese.  With obesity comes other complications such as cardiovascular disease.  Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease.  The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common.  It is estimated that one-third of Americans die from cardiovascular disease so it is no wonder that scientists have been hard at work trying to find a cure.   Below you will see studies where science has looked at cannabis compounds when applied to CVD.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor CB(2 ) in Cardiovascular Disorders: Promises and Controversies
“Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, which can be largely attributed to atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arteries… the lipid endocannabinoid system has emerged as a new therapeutic target in variety of disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main active constituent of marijuana, inhibited atherosclerotic plaque progression via a cannabinoid 2 (CB(2) ) receptor-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanism.

Endocannabinoid System in Cardiovascular Disorders – New Pharmacotherapeutic Opportunities
The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors) is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.

Never Fear Cannabis Is Here! How Cannabis Can Help With Fear, Anxiety, and Other Psychiatric Disorders

Nearly 19 million Americans suffer from a  psychiatric disorder which could include disorders such as specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.  Many veterans returning from war have found cannabis to be a relief from PTSD.  Below you will studies where science has studied the effects of cannabis compounds when applied to psychiatric disorders.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in the Processing of Anxiety and Fear and How CB1 Receptors May Modulate Fear Extinction 
The endocannabinoid system recently emerged as an important modulator of many neuronal functions. Among them, the control of anxiety and acquired fear represents nowadays one of the most interesting fields of research.  Finally, a neurobiological model possibly able to implement the role of the endocannabinoid system in these processes will be proposed.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity During Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice
Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory.  We propose that the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates extinction of aversive memories, at least in part via regulation of the activity of kinases and phosphatases in a brain structure-dependent manner.

Extinction of Emotional Response As A Novel Approach of Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders 
The patogenesis of anxiety may be related to the process of an extinction of aversive memories… Studies on molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for individual fear extinction may serve as the basis of search for more effective forms of clinical treatment… ligands stimulating endogenous cannabinoid system… these substances stimulate different central mechanisms, they appear to act synergistically, to improve the behavioural therapy.

Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear
the findings in the present study suggest that augmenting eCB-mediated neurotransmission by inhibition of eCB transport or breakdown may provide a novel mechanism for enhancing the extinction of fear. As such, eCB reuptake inhibitors may serve as useful adjuncts in the treatment of anxiety disorders (such as PTSD, panic disorder, and OCD) as well as drug addiction and other disorders that respond to behavioral treatments utilizing extinction processes.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Controls Extinction of Aversive Memories
Acquisition and storage of aversive memories is one of the basic principles of central nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of reinforcement, the resulting behavioural response will gradually diminish to be finally extinct.  We propose that endocannabinoids facilitate extinction of aversive memories through their selective inhibitory effects on local inhibitory networks in the amygdala.

The Endocannabinoid system and Extinction Learning
As several human psychiatric disorders, such as phobia, generalized anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to involve aberrant memory processing and impaired adaptation to changed environmental conditions, the hope has been fuelled that the endocannabinoid system might be a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of these disorders.

Bringing the War Back Home: Mental Health Disorders Among 103,788 US Veterans Returning From Iraq and Afghanistan Seen at Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities
Co-occurring mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were detected early and in primary care medical settings in a substantial proportion of OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA facilities. Targeted early detection and intervention beginning in primary care settings are needed to prevent chronic mental illness and disability.

Psychosis and Trauma. Theorical Links Between Post-Traumatic and Psychotic Symptoms
The links between psychotic and psycho-traumatic symptoms are complex and multidirectional; this co-occurrence is a factor of seriousness. The clinician, while paying attention to these symptoms, has to distinguish the structure of the personality of the subject to articulate the psychotherapy and the pharmacological treatment. Further investigational studies may determine whether antipsychotics will enhance treatment response in PTSD patients with psychotic features.

How Some Green Can Help The Blues

Americans across the nation are facing mounting pressure from the economy and many other challenges.  Many are also suffering with depression and mood disorders along with added pressures.  The average American who has tried cannabis well knows the mood elevating effects which include uncontrollable giggling or laughter.  Of course it is also dependent on the right strain but that is where science comes in.  Below you will see studies where scientists have discovered why our moods are altered as well as further the knowledge we have on the interactions of cannabis’ compounds and our bodies.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Dopamine and Cannabinoid Interaction in the Modulation of Emotions and Cognition: Assessing the Role of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Neurons Expressing Dopamine D1 Receptors
Although cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are densely expressed in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), it is not fully understood to what extent they modulate emotional behaviors…….These results provided first direct evidence for a cross-talk between dopaminergic D1Rs and endocannabinoid system in terms of controlling negative affect.

Effects of Cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid and Cannabidiol in MPP(+) Affected Murine Mesencephalic Cultures
Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties… Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities… our data show that cannabinoids THC and THCA protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+) induced cell death.” (Possibly due to the cross-talk between  the dopamine and cannabinoid systems as seen in the study above)

Antidepressant-like Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated From Cannabis
Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.

 

Cannabis: Part Of A Healthy Diet?

Cannabis has been used in a variety of ways for thousands of years.  One of the unique things about the cannabis plant is how versatile and green the plant truly is.  It can be grown organically leaving behind virtually no footprint as well as being used in whole when harvested.  Many people believe in the power of natural remedies including a natural foods diet.  Cannabis, especially the seeds are known for their nutritional value including antioxidants.  Below you will find studies that look at the dietary value of cannabis as well as helpful side effects.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds
“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa), in addition to its nutritional value, has demonstrated positive health benefits, including the lowering of cholesterol and high blood pressure… As a result of the present research, the analyzed oils could be evaluated as an alternative to traditionally consumed vegetable oils…

Health Benefits of Herbs and Spices: the Past, the Present, the Future
Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future… The real challenge lies not in proving whether foods, such as herbs and spices, have health benefits, but in defining what these benefits are… At present, recommendations are warranted to support the consumption of foods rich in bioactive components, such as herbs and spices. With time, we can expect to see a greater body of scientific evidence supporting the benefits of herbs and spices in the overall maintenance of health and protection from disease.

Several Culinary and Medicinal Herbs Are Important Sources of Dietary Antioxidants
In a normal diet, intake of herbs may therefore contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants, and be an even better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups such as fruits, berries, cereals and vegetables.

Neuroprotective Antioxidants From Marijuana
As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.

Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Are Neuroprotective Antioxidants
Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or alpha-tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. These data also suggest that the naturally occurring, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol, may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia. 

 

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Cannabis

This week the nation was heart broken to learn that little Avery Canahuati, 5 month-old girl who had SMA, died Monday April 30th.  Avery became an internet sensation with her bucket list.   It is estimated that spinal muscular atrophy occurs in between one-in-6,000 and one-in-20,000 births.  Avery’s parents want to spread the word about SMA so that more research can be done to better understand SMA.  Below you will see studies where scientists have studied the interaction of cannabis compounds when applied to SMA situations as well as a little background as to how the Endocannabinoid system ties into SMA.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

TRPV4 Mutations in Children With Congenital Distal Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Functional analysis of the novel p.P97R mutation in a heterologous system demonstrated a loss-of-function mechanism. Protein localization studies in muscle, skin, and cultured skin fibroblasts from both patients showed normal protein expression. No TRPV4 mutations were detected in four children with dSMA without bone or vocal cord involvement. Adding to the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of TRPV4-associated diseases, our results suggest that molecular testing of the TRPV4 gene is warranted in cases of congenital dSMA with bone abnormalities and vocal cord paralysis.

Alterations in the Ankyrin Domain of TRPV4 Cause Congenital Distal SMA, Scapuloperoneal SMA and HMSN2C
Expression of mutant TRPV4 constructs in cells from the HeLa line revealed diminished surface localization of mutant proteins. In addition, TRPV4-regulated Ca(2+) influx was substantially reduced even after stimulation with 4alphaPDD, a TRPV4 channel-specific agonist, and with hypo-osmotic solution. In summary, we describe a new hereditary channelopathy caused by mutations in TRPV4 and present evidence that the resulting substitutions in the N-terminal ankyrin domain affect channel maturation, leading to reduced surface expression of functional TRPV4 channels.

TRPV4-mediated channelopathies
In addition, there are some potential signaling events that can also be involved in these genetic disorders. In this review, we analyzed how and what extent certain cellular and molecular functions like oligomerization, surface expression, ubiquitination and functional interactions might be affected by these mutations.

TRPV Channels and Vascular Function
TRPV1 and TRPV4 are expressed in sensory nerves and can cause vasodilation through calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P release as well as mediating vascular function via the baroreceptor reflex (TRPV1) or via increasing sympathetic outflow during osmotic stress (TRPV4). Thus, TRPV channels play important roles in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular function in the vasculature.

Tempo and Mode in the Endocannabinoid System
Using an extended haplotype homozygosity analysis of SNP data from the HapMap database. Significant evidence (p < 0.05) of a positive “selective sweep” was exhibited by PTPN22, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and DAGLalpha. In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system is collectively under strong purifying selection, although some genes show evidence of adaptive evolution.

Cannabinoid Actions at TRPV Channels: Effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and Their Potential Relevance to Gastrointestinal Inflammation
Cannabinoids can affect both the activity and the expression of TRPV1-4 channels, with various potential therapeutic applications, including in the gastrointestinal tract.   Cannabinol and cannabigerol were significantly more efficacious at desensitizing this channel to the action of 4-α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD) than at activating it; (iii) CBC reduced TRPV1β, TRPV3 and TRPV4 mRNA in the jejunum, and TRPV3 and TRPV4 mRNA in the ileum of croton oil-treated mice.


Central Nervous Disease and Cannabis

It is estimated that over 50 million Americans are affected by disease or disorders of the spinal cord and brain.  Central nervous system disease affects either the spinal cord (myelopathy) or brain (encephalopathy).  Disorders includes spinal cord injury, memory loss, addiction, schizophrenia, learning disability, depression, violence, stroke, brain injury, dementia, and many others.  Scientists have studied cannabis compounds when applied to CNS disease and below you will find those studies.
Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in CNS Disease
The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors… Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease… Anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with disorders such as multiple sclerosis smoke cannabis to relieve disease-related symptoms. Cannabinoids can alleviate tremor and spasticity in animal models of multiple sclerosis… Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in Parkinson’s disease… The inhibitory effect of cannabinoids… suggests they may be potent neuroprotective agents…cannabinoids may be effective analgesics. Indeed, in clinical trials of postoperative and cancer pain and pain associated with spinal cord injury, cannabinoids have proven more effective than placebo… Acute adverse effects following cannabis usage include sedation and anxiety. These effects are usually transient and may be less severe than those that occur with existing therapeutic agents. The use of nonpsychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol may allow the dissociation of unwanted psychoactive effects from potential therapeutic benefits… This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment.

Cannabinoids.  Current Drug Targets CNS Disorders Neurol Disorders
Since the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, research into the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has steadily increased… Properties of CB receptor agonists that are of therapeutic interest include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, antiallergic effects, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects… CB receptor antagonists are under investigation for medical use in obesity and nicotine addiction. Additional potential was proposed for the treatment of alcohol and heroine dependency, schizophrenia, conditions with lowered blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease and memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease.

Antiepileptic Potential of Cannabidiol Analogs
These data suggest anticonvulsant requirements of 2 free phenolic hydroxyl groups, exact positioning of the terpinoid moiety in the resorcinol system and correct stereochemistry. Moreover, findings of separation of anticonvulsant from neurotoxic and psychoactive activities, notably with CBD diacetate, suggest that additional structural modifications of CBD may yield novel antiepileptic drugs.

Structure-Anticonvulsant Activity Relationships of Cannabidiol Analogs
The compounds were evaluated for anti-convulsant activity in seizure susceptible (AGS) rats and for neurotoxicity in the rat rotorod (ROT) test. Comparisons of stereoisomers of CBD and several analogs revealed a general lack of stereoselectivity for anticonvulsant and other CNS properties of this class of compounds.

Antiepileptic Potential of Cannabidiol Analogs
Also, CBD and all analogs were not active in tetrahydrocannabinol seizure-susceptible rabbits, the latter a putative model of cannabinoid psychoactivity in humans. These data suggest anticonvulsant requirements of 2 free phenolic hydroxyl groups, exact positioning of the terpinoid moiety in the resorcinol system and correct stereochemistry. Moreover, findings of separation of anticonvulsant from neurotoxic and psychoactive activities, notably with CBD diacetate, suggest that additional structural modifications of CBD may yield novel antiepileptic drugs.

An Electrophysiological Analysis of the Anticonvulsant Action of Cannabidiol on Limbic Seizures in Conscious Rats
An electrophysiological analysis of the anticonvulsant action of cannabidiol (CBD, from cannabis) on limbic seizures in conscious rats…CBD was the most efficacious of the drugs tested… Other properties of CBD were also noted: For example, compared with delta 9-THC, it is a much more selective anticonvulsant vis-à-vis motor toxicity…These characteristics, combined with its apparently unique set of electrophysiological properties, support the suggestion that CBD has therapeutic potential as an antiepileptic.

Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Cannabidiol Displays Antiepileptiform and Antiseizure Properties In Vitro and In Vivo
“CBD (cannabidiol) is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa whose structure was first described by Mechoulam and Shvo (1963); CBD has recently attracted renewed interest for its therapeutic potential in a number of disease states. CBD has been proposed to possess anticonvulsive, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties in humans… within the CNS, CBD has been proposed to be protective against epilepsy, anxiety, and psychosis and to ameliorate diseases.

Cannabidiol–Antiepileptic Drug Comparisons and Interactions in Experimentally Induced Seizures in Rats
“A comparison of the anticonvulsant… effects of cannabidiol (CBD), delta 9tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, ethosuximide and trimethadione) was made… These data indicate that CBD is an effective anticonvulsant with a specificity more comparable to drugs clinically effective in major than minor seizures. Furthermore, it appears that CBD enhances the anticonvulsant effects.

Cannabis and Liver Disease

The human liver is the largest organ in the body.  It has many functions as well as afflictions.  Some are inherited and others are through abuse or viruses.  There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Others can be the result of drugs, poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness, it’s called cirrhosis.  Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, can be one sign of liver disease.  Like other parts of your body, cancer can affect the liver. You could also inherit a liver disease such as hemochromatosis.  Below are studies that show the interaction of cannabis compounds and the liver.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System As A Novel Target For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
We have recently demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors display opposite effects in the regulation of liver fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Indeed, both receptors are up-regulated in the liver of cirrhotic patients, and expressed in liver fibrogenic cells. Moreover, CB1 receptors are profibrogenic and accordingly, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant reduces fibrosis progression in three experimental models. In keeping with these results, daily cannabis smoking is a risk factor for fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In contrast, CB2 display antifibrogenic effects, by a mechanism involving reduction of liver fibrogenic cell accumulation. These results may offer new perspectives for the treatment of liver fibrosis, combining CB2 agonist and CB1 antagonist therapy.

The Endocannabinoid System and Liver Diseases
The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases… molecules targeting the CB(1) and CB(2) receptors may represent potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of liver diseases. At present, the CB(1) antagonists represent the most attractive pharmaceutical tool to resolve fat accumulation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and to treat patients with cirrhosis, as they may slow the progression of fibrosis and attenuate the cardiovascular alterations associated with the advanced stage of the disease.

Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease
Marijuana has been used for its psychoactive and medicinal properties for millennia. As other plant-derived substances, marijuana has been slow to yield its secrets, with insights into its mechanism of action beginning to emerge only during the last decades… Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana… Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB(1) blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists.

Endogenous Cannabinoids in Liver Disease: Many Darts For A Single Target
Endogenous cannabinoids are ubiquitous lipid-signaling molecules able to partially mimic the actions produced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound responsible for most of the effects of marijuana… The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in advanced liver disease and also plays a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and liver fibrosis… These findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system may open new avenues for the therapeutic regulation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in advanced liver disease.

Cannabinoid Receptors As New Targets of Antifibrosing Strategies During Chronic Liver Diseases
Cannabinoid receptors as new targets of antifibrosing strategies during chronic liver diseases… Chronic liver injury exposes the patient to liver fibrosis and its end stage, cirrhosis, is a major public health problem worldwide… prevailing causes of cirrhosis include chronic alcohol consumption, hepatitis C virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis…. the authors recently demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system shows promise as a novel target for antifibrotic therapy during chronic liver injury. Indeed, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 promote dual pro- and antifibrogenic effects, respectively. Therefore, endocannabinoid-based therapies, combining CB2 agonists and CB1 antagonists may open novel therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of chronic liver diseases.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonism: A New Strategy For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
Hepatic fibrosis, the common response associated with chronic liver diseases, ultimately leads to cirrhosis, a major public health problem worldwide.  Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 receptors decreased fibrogenesis by lowering hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and reducing accumulation of fibrogenic cells in the liver after apoptosis and growth inhibition of hepatic myofibroblasts. In conclusion, our study shows that CB1 receptor antagonists hold promise for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Role of Cannabinoids in Chronic Liver Diseases
The role of the endocannabinoid system in hepatic physiology and pathologic conditions has been studied recently. Unquestionably, influencing endocannabinoid signaling may have a beneficial effect on delaying or even reversing hepatic fibrosis.

CB2 Receptors As New Therapeutic Targets For Liver Diseases
phytocannabinoids have long been used for recreational and therapeutic purposes… studies have unravelled pleiotropic functions of CB2 receptors under physiological and pathological conditions, including acute and chronic liver diseases. Additional functions may soon arise… These findings may open novel therapeutic avenues, upon clinical development of CB2-specific molecules.

Beneficial Paracrine Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Liver Injury and Regeneration
CONCLUSION: CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration following acute insult, via distinct paracrine mechanisms involving hepatic myofibroblasts. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Type I Modulates Alcohol-Induced Liver Fibrosis
CB1 expression is upregulated in human ALF (alcoholic liver fibrosis ) which is at least in part triggered by acetaldehyde (AA) and oxidative stress. Inhibition of CB1… or via genetic knock-out protects against alcoholic-induced fibrosis in vitro and in vivo….CB1 antagonists have been used in treating alcohol dependence without causing significant depression.

The Endocannabinoid System As A Key Mediator During Liver Diseases: New Insights and Therapeutic Openings
“The endocannabinoid system as a key mediator during liver diseases: new insights and therapeutic openings… hepatic cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) receptors display beneficial effects on alcoholic fatty liver, hepatic inflammation, liver injury, regeneration and fibrosis. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several lesions such as alcoholic and metabolic steatosis, liver fibrogenesis, or circulatory failure associated with cirrhosis… data obtained with peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists give real hopes in the development of active CB(1) molecules devoid of central adverse effects.

Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease: Classical Concepts and Recent Advances
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a primary consequence of heavy and prolonged drinking.  The observation that ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis share common pathways and genetic polymorphisms suggests operation of parallel pathogenic mechanisms. Future research involving genomics, epigenomics, deep sequencing and non-coding regulatory elements holds promise to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for ALD. There is also a need for adequate animal models to study pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level and targeted therapy.

The Role of the Cannabinoid System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
The lack of satisfactory results of alcohol dependence treatment force us to search for new directions of research.  SR141716 (rimonabant), a CB1 receptor antagonist, significantly lowers voluntary alcohol intake and motivation for its consumption in various experimental studies. Very encouraging results of preclinical studies were not completely confirmed in the clinical studies. However, further clinical studies are still necessary.

 

Interactions With Cannabis Compounds and the Human Endocannabinoid System in the Brain

We have know about the endocannabinoid system since the 60’s but we have only begun to scratch the surface of what our system is capable of.  This of course include the interaction with compounds found in the cannabis plant.  Below are studies that deal with the interaction of cannabis compounds and our endocannabinoid system in our brain.  Please feel free to share and spread the truth ~ Cherry Gurl

Multiple Functions of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Brain 2012
Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology.

Clinical Efficacy and Effectiveness of Sativex(®), A Combined Cannabinoid Medicine, in Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity 2012
Results from randomized, controlled trials have reported a reduction in the severity of symptoms associated with spasticity, leading to a better ability to perform daily activities and an improved perception of patients and their carers regarding functional status. These are highly encouraging findings that provide some much needed optimism for the treatment of this disabling and often painful symptom of MS.

Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-Convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures 2012
We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures… this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.

The Cannabinoid Receptor-2 is Involved in Allergic Inflammation 2012
These results clearly demonstrate that CB2 and its endogenous ligands participate not only in the acute, edematous phase of allergic dermatitis, but also in the chronic irreversible acanthosis reaction.

The Direct Pro-Fibrotic and Indirect Immune Anti-Fibrotic Balance of Blocking the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor 2012
Naïve CB2(-/-) mice had significantly decreased T-cell subsets. (II) Adoptive transfer of CB2(-/-) lymphocytes led to decreased fibrosis in the irradiated WT recipient as compared to animals receiving WT lymphocytes. Moreover, necro-inflammation also tended to decrease. (III) In-vitro, a CB2-antagonist directly increased human HSCs activation and increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation of mice/ human T-cells (healthy/ fibrotic) and their phagocytosis. Conclusions: CB2(-/-) lymphocytes exert an anti-fibrotic activity while lack of CB2-receptor in HSCs promotes fibrosis. These findings broaden our understanding of cannabinoid signaling in hepatic fibrosis beyond their activity solely in HSCs.

Therapeutic Use of Cannabis 2012
Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

Endocannabinoids Regulate Growth and Survival of Human Eccrine Sweat Gland-Derived Epithelial Cells 2012
The endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication.

 

The Human Prenatal Endocannabinoid System

Since the discovery of the human endocannabinoid system science has been busy trying to unlock the mysteries of this complex system.  Science has uncovered many interesting features of this system.  This includes the presence of this multi-function system in fetuses.   Below you will see studies on how science has uncovered in-dept knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in pre and post natal subjects.  I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

Multiple Roles For the Endocannabinoid System During the Earliest Stages Of Life: Pre- and Postnatal Development
The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), endogenous ligands (‘endocannabinoids’), synthesising and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development.  Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development…the endocannabinoid system appears to play an essential role for development and survival… the endocannabinoid system plays several key roles in pre- and postnatal development. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms involved… in order to design strategies for the treatment of conditions such as infertility, mental retardation and failure-to-thrive.

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance For Development and In Pediatric Disease
The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: Importance for development and in pediatric disease… it is suggested that children may respond positively to medicinal applications of cannabinoids without undesirable central effects. Excellent clinical results have previously been reported in pediatric oncology and in case studies of children with severe neurological disease or brain trauma. We suggest cannabinoid treatment for children or young adults with cystic fibrosis in order to achieve an improvement of their health condition including improved food intake and reduced inflammatory exacerbations.

On the Application of Cannabis In Paediatrics and Epileptology
An initial report on the therapeutic application of delta 9-THC (THC) (Dronabinol, Marinol) in 8 children resp. adolescents suffering from the following conditions, is given: neurodegenerative disease, mitochondriopathy, posthypoxic state, epilepsy, posttraumatic reaction. THC effected reduced spasticity, improved dystonia, increased initiative, increased interest in the surroundings, and anticonvulsive action…possibility that THC-induced effects on ion channels and transmitters may explain its therapeutic activity seen in epileptic patients.

The Endocannabinoid-CB(1) Receptor System In Pre- and Postnatal Life
The endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor system in pre- and postnatal life.. CB(1) receptors display a transient presence in white matter areas of the pre- and postnatal nervous system, suggesting a role for CB(1) receptors in brain development…Further observations suggest that children may be less prone to psychoactive side effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or endocannabinoids than adults. The medical implications of these novel developments are far reaching and suggest a promising future for cannabinoids in pediatric medicine for conditions including “non-organic failure-to-thrive” and cystic fibrosis.

Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation In Adulthood
The appetite-stimulating effects of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) have been known since ancient times, and appear to be effected through the incentive and rewarding properties of foods. Investigations into the biological basis of the multiple effects of cannabis have yielded important breakthroughs in recent years… exciting progress in the understanding of how the endocannabinoid CB receptor systems influence appetite and body weight is stimulating the development of therapeutic orexigenic and anorectic agents. Furthermore, the role of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation for milk suckling in newborns may open new doors toward understanding nonorganic failure-to-thrive in infants, who display growth failure without known organic cause.

Ontogenetic Development of Cannabinoid Receptor Expression and Signal Transduction Functionality in the Human Brain
Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail.   This early pattern of expression of functionally active cannabinoid receptors, along with the transient and atypical localization of these proteins in white matter areas during the prenatal stages, suggest an specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the events related to human neural development.

 

The Miraculous Human CB1 Receptor

For over 50 years we have known of the human endocannabinoid system and with that the discovery of the CB1 receptor.  The CB1 receptor is found in the brain and is involved in a lot of functions.  Below you will see studies on the CB1 receptor and how they function within the body and with cannabis.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Mitochondrial CB(1) Receptors Regulate Neuronal Energy Metabolism
The mammalian brain is one of the organs with the highest energy demands, and mitochondria are key determinants of its functions. Thus, mtCB(1) receptors directly modulate neuronal energy metabolism, revealing a new mechanism of action of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in the brain.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Trafficking and the Role of the Intracellular Pool: Implications For Therapeutics
Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB(1)), an abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the CNS, is currently of significant interest as a therapeutic target.  These findings have significant implications for the interpretation of CB(1) biochemical studies and the design and application of cannabinoid therapeutics.

Cannabinoid Receptor Trafficking In Peripheral Cells Is Dynamically Regulated By A Binary Biochemical Switch 2012
The cannabinoid G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CB(1) and CB(2) are expressed in different peripheral cells.  This study describes, for the first time, the dynamic nature of CB receptor trafficking in the context of a biochemical switch, which may have implications for studies on the cell-type specific effects of cannabinoids and our understanding of the regulation of CB receptor cell surface expression.

Cannabis And The Human Immune System

For over 50 years science has been trying to unravel the questions that surround our endocannabinoid system.  Science has discovered many exciting breakthroughs including how cannabis, our endocannabinoid stem and our immune system work together.  below you will see studies on how this has been studied.  Please feel free to do your own research, seek out and share the truth ~ Cherry Girl

Immune Control By Endocannabinoids – New Mechanisms of Neuroprotection?
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and represents a local messenger system within and between the nervous and immune system. Apparently, the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune control and neuroprotection.

Cannabinoid Treatment Suppresses the T-helper Cell-Polarizing Function of Mouse Dendritic Cells Stimulated With Legionella Pneumophila Infection
“In conclusion, our results show that a major cellular target of THC-induced immune suppression of Th1 immunity is the dendritic cell and that the drug attenuates polarizing function… THC… might be of use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus, and therefore might be in the class of anti-inflammatory drugs recognized to interfere with earlier stages of immunity by suppressing DC activation.

Role of Cannabinoid Receptors In Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppression of IL-12p40 In Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected With Legionella Pneumophila
These results suggest that THC-induced suppression of serum IL-12 is partly due to a suppression of IL-12 production by dendritic cells and that G(i) signaling and cannabinoid receptors, but not TRPV1, are involved in this suppressive effect.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol As In Vivo Chemoattractant For Dendritic Cells and Adjuvant For Th1 Response To A Soluble Protein
The decision-making mechanisms that determine the choice of the appropriate effector immune response to a microbial challenge are poorly understood. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), injected intradermally in mice together with a soluble protein and a T helper-2 (Th2) priming Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonist during primary immunization, shifts the memory response to the Th1 type. As 2-AG may be induced in tissues by various stimuli at concentrations similar to that used in our study, this evidence might be of a wide-ranging pathophysiological relevance.

Presence and Regulation of the Endocannabinoid System In Human Dendritic Cells
Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, have been detected in several blood immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, basophils and lymphocytes. However, their presence in dendritic cells, which play a key role in the initiation and development of the immune response, has never been investigated.  These findings demonstrate for the first time that the endogenous cannabinoid system is present in human dendritic cells and can be regulated by cell activation.

The Endocannabinoid System: Mechanisms Behind Metabolic Homeostasis and Imbalance
The endocannabinoid system: mechanisms behind metabolic homeostasis and imbalance…EC agonists and receptors have been identified in the brain, liver, and peripheral adipose tissue, and the EC system is known to affect metabolism in these areas and others through neuromodulatory signals. Meal size, body weight, and numerous metabolic factors such as triglyceride and cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance can be affected via the EC system.

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Modulates Antigen Processing By Macrophages
THC differentially modulates the capacity of macrophages to process antigens that is necessary for the activation of CD4+ T cells… delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol modulates antigen processing by macrophages.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Key To Cannabis’ Healing Success

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 60’s science has been hard at work trying to unlock the mysteries surrounding cannabis and the interaction of the human body.  For thousands of years cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes.  Below you will see studies that explain a little as to why cannabis works the way it does within our system.  You will see how CB1 and   CB2 receptors interact with cannabis and how they play a key role in its therapeutic properties.   I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The CB(2) Cannabinoid Receptor Controls Myeloid Progenitor Trafficking: Involvement In the Pathogenesis of An Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Gene In T Cells By Cannabinoids
Effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated by two types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. In this report, we investigated whether CBs regulate gene expression of their cognate receptors in T cells and studied underlying mechanisms in CD4+ Jurkat T cells.  In summary, up-regulation of CB1 in T lymphocytes in response to CBs themselves may facilitate or enhance the various immunomodulatory effects related to CBs.

Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids In A Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids may act as immunosuppressive compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders… Overall, the data presented may have potential therapeutic implications in demyelinating pathologies such as MS; in particular, the involvement of cannabinoid receptor CB2 would enable nonpsychoactive therapy suitable for long-term use.

The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein
These results further support the proposed role of the CB1 receptor in controlling intraocular pressure, helping to explain the antiglaucoma properties of marijuana.

CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) From Various Donor Types
Marijuana cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, are G protein-coupled receptors… expressed in brain as well as cells of the periphery…results suggest that CBR expression is relatively constant across the human population.

Cannabinoid-receptor 1 Null Mice Are Susceptible To Neurofilament Damage and Caspase 3 Activation
Administered cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate signs of CNS inflammatory disease in a number of animal models, including allergic encephalomyelitis. More recently, neuroprotective actions have been attributed to activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in a number of in vitro and in vivo models…The data presented further strengthen the hypothesis of neuroprotection elicited via cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling.

Detailed Characterization of CB2 Receptor Protein Expression In Peripheral Blood Immune Cells From Healthy Human Volunteers Using Flow Cytometry
These data provide the first detailed analysis of CB2 protein levels in blood leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and identifies the cell types which could be targeted with CB-mimetic drugs in humans.

Cannabinoid-Induced Immune Suppression and Modulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells
The study of marijuana cannabinoid biology has led to many important discoveries in neuroscience and immunology. These studies have uncovered a new physiological system, the endocannabinoid system, which operates in the regulation of not only brain function but also the regulation of the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are suppressed by these agents leading to the hypothesis that these drugs may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this report, we review current information on cannabinoid ligand and receptor biology, mechanisms involved in immune suppression by cannabinoids with emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, and preclinical and clinical models analyzing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Immunoregulation of A CB2 Receptor Agonist In A Murine Model of NeuroAIDS
Chronic HIV-1 infection commonly affects behavioral, cognitive, and motor functions in the infected human host and is commonly referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)…Our results support the notion that CB2 receptor agonists may be a viable therapeutic candidate for HAND.

Anandamide Prior To Sensitization Increases Cell-Mediated Immunity In Mice
The endocannabinoid system has become a topic of great interest in pharmacology due to its remarkable distribution in mammal organisms and capacity to play a modulatory role on several physiological systems, including modulation of immunity. Many studies have shown that administration of cannabinoids causes inhibitory effects on immune cells, including decreased proliferation and antigen-presenting cell (APC) co-stimulatory activity. In contrast, other groups have shown that some cannabinoids might present stimulatory actions on macrophage activity and T cell activation…Anandamide prior to sensitization increases cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Endogenous Modulators of Synaptic Transmission: Cannabinoid Regulation In the Supraoptic Nucleus
The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) are a major source of both systemic and central release of the neurohypophyseal peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP).  Further study of eCB signalling in the SON, including its interaction with AVP neurons, promises to extend our understanding of the synaptic regulation of SON physiological function.

 

 

The Many Functions of the Human Endocannabinoid System And How Cannabis Can Help

The endocannabinoid system was discovered in the 60’s and since then scientists have been trying to unravel the mysteries surrounding this system.  At first some thought it was merely the receptors for the cannabis plant but we soon found that the endocannabinoid system is tied to several functions throughout the human body and in recent years become a target for therapies.  Below you will find studies that show how the endocannabinoid system is involved in many functions.  Please share with all and I encourage you to do your own research seeking out the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System: A Revolving Plate In Neuro-Immune Interaction In Health and Disease 2012
The cannabinoid system has been shown to be involved in regulating the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are modulated by these agents, thus raising the hypothesis that these compounds may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. The special properties of endocannabinoids as neurotransmitters, their pleiotropic effects and the impact on immune function show that the endocannabinoid system represents a revolving plate of neural and immune interactions.

Endocannabinoid Signaling As A Synaptic Circuit Breaker In Neurological Disease
Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal plants in the history of medicine. It was used in various therapeutic applications from pain to epilepsy… renewed interest has been fueled by major discoveries revealing that cannabis-derived compounds act through a signaling pathway in the human body. Here we review recent advances showing that endocannabinoid signaling is a key regulator of synaptic communication throughout the central nervous system. Its underlying molecular architecture is highly conserved in synapses from the spinal cord to the neocortex, and as a negative feed-back signal, it provides protection against excess presynaptic activity. The endocannabinoid signaling machinery operates on demand in a synapse-specific manner; therefore, its modulation offers new therapeutic opportunities for the selective control of deleterious neuronal activity in several neurological disorders…Endocannabinoid signaling as a synaptic circuit breaker in neurological disease.

The Endogenous Cardiac Cannabinoid System: A New Protective Mechanism Against Myocardial Ischemia
The pharmacological (and recreational) effects of cannabis have been known for centuries. However, it is only recently that one has identified two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors, namely CB1 and CB2-receptors, which mediate the numerous effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids. Logically, the existence of cannabinoid-receptors implies that endogenous ligands for these receptors (endocannabinoids) exist and exert a physiological role. Thus, the endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system, through activation of CB2-receptors, appears to be an important mechanism of protection against myocardial ischemia.

The Endocannabinoid Nervous System: Unique Opportunities For Therapeutic Intervention
The active principle in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to have wide therapeutic application for a number of important medical conditions… Delta(9)-THC binds to and activates two known cannabinoid receptors found in mammalian tissue, CB1 and CB2. The development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics has focused predominantly on the CB1 receptor, based on its predominant and abundant localization in the CNS.. cannabinoid agonists are relatively safe and provide therapeutic efficacy, but that they also induce psychotropic side effects… This review attempts to link current understanding of the basic biology of the endocannabinoid nervous system to novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This new knowledge may facilitate the development of cannabinoid receptor-targeted therapeutics with improved safety and efficacy profiles.
A Critical Review Of The Cannabinoid Receptor As A Drug Target For Obesity Management
The discovery of cannabinoids, with the well-known stimulatory effect of Cannabis sativa on appetite, has offered a new drug target for obesity treatment. Cannabinoids act on two different receptors: CB1 receptors which are sited in the brain and many peripheral tissues, and CB2 receptors which are primarily found in immune system cells. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists act centrally by blocking CB1 receptors, thereby reducing food intake…This review discusses how close cannabinoid receptor antagonists are to the IDEAL ANTI-OBESITY DRUG, with respect to their mechanisms of action, clinical effectiveness and safety.