Interactions With Cannabis Compounds and the Human Endocannabinoid System in the Brain

We have know about the endocannabinoid system since the 60’s but we have only begun to scratch the surface of what our system is capable of.  This of course include the interaction with compounds found in the cannabis plant.  Below are studies that deal with the interaction of cannabis compounds and our endocannabinoid system in our brain.  Please feel free to share and spread the truth ~ Cherry Gurl

Multiple Functions of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Brain 2012
Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology.

Clinical Efficacy and Effectiveness of Sativex(®), A Combined Cannabinoid Medicine, in Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity 2012
Results from randomized, controlled trials have reported a reduction in the severity of symptoms associated with spasticity, leading to a better ability to perform daily activities and an improved perception of patients and their carers regarding functional status. These are highly encouraging findings that provide some much needed optimism for the treatment of this disabling and often painful symptom of MS.

Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-Convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures 2012
We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures… this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.

The Cannabinoid Receptor-2 is Involved in Allergic Inflammation 2012
These results clearly demonstrate that CB2 and its endogenous ligands participate not only in the acute, edematous phase of allergic dermatitis, but also in the chronic irreversible acanthosis reaction.

The Direct Pro-Fibrotic and Indirect Immune Anti-Fibrotic Balance of Blocking the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor 2012
Naïve CB2(-/-) mice had significantly decreased T-cell subsets. (II) Adoptive transfer of CB2(-/-) lymphocytes led to decreased fibrosis in the irradiated WT recipient as compared to animals receiving WT lymphocytes. Moreover, necro-inflammation also tended to decrease. (III) In-vitro, a CB2-antagonist directly increased human HSCs activation and increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation of mice/ human T-cells (healthy/ fibrotic) and their phagocytosis. Conclusions: CB2(-/-) lymphocytes exert an anti-fibrotic activity while lack of CB2-receptor in HSCs promotes fibrosis. These findings broaden our understanding of cannabinoid signaling in hepatic fibrosis beyond their activity solely in HSCs.

Therapeutic Use of Cannabis 2012
Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

Endocannabinoids Regulate Growth and Survival of Human Eccrine Sweat Gland-Derived Epithelial Cells 2012
The endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication.

 

Cannabinoid Receptors: Key To Cannabis’ Healing Success

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 60’s science has been hard at work trying to unlock the mysteries surrounding cannabis and the interaction of the human body.  For thousands of years cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes.  Below you will see studies that explain a little as to why cannabis works the way it does within our system.  You will see how CB1 and   CB2 receptors interact with cannabis and how they play a key role in its therapeutic properties.   I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The CB(2) Cannabinoid Receptor Controls Myeloid Progenitor Trafficking: Involvement In the Pathogenesis of An Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Gene In T Cells By Cannabinoids
Effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated by two types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. In this report, we investigated whether CBs regulate gene expression of their cognate receptors in T cells and studied underlying mechanisms in CD4+ Jurkat T cells.  In summary, up-regulation of CB1 in T lymphocytes in response to CBs themselves may facilitate or enhance the various immunomodulatory effects related to CBs.

Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids In A Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids may act as immunosuppressive compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders… Overall, the data presented may have potential therapeutic implications in demyelinating pathologies such as MS; in particular, the involvement of cannabinoid receptor CB2 would enable nonpsychoactive therapy suitable for long-term use.

The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein
These results further support the proposed role of the CB1 receptor in controlling intraocular pressure, helping to explain the antiglaucoma properties of marijuana.

CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) From Various Donor Types
Marijuana cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, are G protein-coupled receptors… expressed in brain as well as cells of the periphery…results suggest that CBR expression is relatively constant across the human population.

Cannabinoid-receptor 1 Null Mice Are Susceptible To Neurofilament Damage and Caspase 3 Activation
Administered cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate signs of CNS inflammatory disease in a number of animal models, including allergic encephalomyelitis. More recently, neuroprotective actions have been attributed to activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in a number of in vitro and in vivo models…The data presented further strengthen the hypothesis of neuroprotection elicited via cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling.

Detailed Characterization of CB2 Receptor Protein Expression In Peripheral Blood Immune Cells From Healthy Human Volunteers Using Flow Cytometry
These data provide the first detailed analysis of CB2 protein levels in blood leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and identifies the cell types which could be targeted with CB-mimetic drugs in humans.

Cannabinoid-Induced Immune Suppression and Modulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells
The study of marijuana cannabinoid biology has led to many important discoveries in neuroscience and immunology. These studies have uncovered a new physiological system, the endocannabinoid system, which operates in the regulation of not only brain function but also the regulation of the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are suppressed by these agents leading to the hypothesis that these drugs may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this report, we review current information on cannabinoid ligand and receptor biology, mechanisms involved in immune suppression by cannabinoids with emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, and preclinical and clinical models analyzing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Immunoregulation of A CB2 Receptor Agonist In A Murine Model of NeuroAIDS
Chronic HIV-1 infection commonly affects behavioral, cognitive, and motor functions in the infected human host and is commonly referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)…Our results support the notion that CB2 receptor agonists may be a viable therapeutic candidate for HAND.

Anandamide Prior To Sensitization Increases Cell-Mediated Immunity In Mice
The endocannabinoid system has become a topic of great interest in pharmacology due to its remarkable distribution in mammal organisms and capacity to play a modulatory role on several physiological systems, including modulation of immunity. Many studies have shown that administration of cannabinoids causes inhibitory effects on immune cells, including decreased proliferation and antigen-presenting cell (APC) co-stimulatory activity. In contrast, other groups have shown that some cannabinoids might present stimulatory actions on macrophage activity and T cell activation…Anandamide prior to sensitization increases cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Endogenous Modulators of Synaptic Transmission: Cannabinoid Regulation In the Supraoptic Nucleus
The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) are a major source of both systemic and central release of the neurohypophyseal peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP).  Further study of eCB signalling in the SON, including its interaction with AVP neurons, promises to extend our understanding of the synaptic regulation of SON physiological function.