Cannabis Found To Have Antidepressant-like Properties


Below is a study that show how cannabis has properties that work as an antidepressant.   With more research we can prove that marijuana does have medicinal value and can greatly aid or cure many ailments.  These are published medical studies that I encourage you to research and share your findings with everyone.  Spread the truth!
Information gathered by David Worrell edited by Cherry Girl 


Antidepressant-like Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated From Cannabis.

‎”The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”
 ‎”Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. El-Alfy AT, Ivey K, Robinson K, Ahmed S, Radwan M, Slade D, Khan I, ElSohly M, Ross S.  SourcePharmacology Department, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. aalfy2001@olemiss.edu

Abstract
The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses lacking hypothermic and cataleptic effects (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), both Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC showed a U-shaped dose response with only Delta(9)-THC showing significant antidepressant-like effects at 2.5 mg/kg (p<0.05) in the FST. The cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN) did not produce antidepressant-like actions up to 80 mg/kg in the mouse FST, while cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited significant effect at 20 and 200mg/kg, respectively (p<0.01). The antidepressant-like action of Delta(9)-THC and CBC was further confirmed in the TST. Delta(9)-THC exhibited the same U-shaped dose response with significant antidepressant-like action at 2.5 mg/kg (p<0.05) while CBC resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in immobility at 40 and 80 mg/kg doses (p<0.01). Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”
Introduction
The psychological and physiological effects of cannabis have been extensively characterized, including euphoria, analgesia, sedation, memory and cognitive impairment, appetite stimulation, and anti-emesis. Most of these effects have been primarily attributed to Δ9-THC (Pertwee, 2006). Major advances in the field of cannabinoid research were achieved following the unraveling of the molecular mechanism underlying the actions of Δ9-THC and the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is regarded as a neuromodulator, and is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (primarily CB1 and CB2 receptors), their endogenous ligands, and enzymes responsible for the synthesis and metabolism of these ligands (Devane et al., 1992Dinh et al., 2002Gong et al., 2006Matsuda et al., 1990Okamoto et al., 2004Sugiura et al., 1995).
In addition to the established effects of cannabis, it is well recognized that mood elevation is one of the components of the complex experience elicited by cannabis (Skolnick et al., 2001). Much of our knowledge regarding cannabis effect on mood and anxiety is based on individual reports following cannabis use for medicinal or recreational purposes. Several anecdotal reports describe the antidepressant effect of cannabis, with patients confirming beneficial outcomes from its use in primary or secondary depressive disorders (Grinsponn and Balkar, 1998Gruber et al., 1996;Johns, 2001). On the other hand, similar increasing literature associate cannabis abuse with bipolar disorders and depression (Bovasso, 2001Jarvis et al., 2008Lee et al., 2008van Rossum et al., 2009). Because of such bidirectional effects of cannabis in humans, recent research has primarily focused on the complex role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression (Witkin et al., 2005). Hill et al. (2008) reported a reduction in serum 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) levels in patients suffering from major depression with the decrease correlating with the duration of depression episodes. The authors also reported a significantly enhanced serum anandamide level in patients with minor depression, while both 2-AG and anandamide were reduced in women suffering from major depression. Similarly, postmortem studies of patients with major depression have revealed a decrease in CB1 receptor density in the glial cells of the brain grey matter (Koethe et al., 2007). The available data thus suggest that changes in the central endocannabinoid system may differ from minor to major depression with down-regulation of the system involved in major depression while an up-regulation is elicited in minor depression.
Contrary to the extensive research done regarding the role of the endocannabinoid system in depression, only a number of studies have examined the effect of exogenous cannabinoids on depression. However, the controversial role of the endocannabinoid system in depression further extends to the evidence collected regarding the antidepressant effect of exogenous cannabinoids. Hill and Gorzalka (2005) reported that stimulation of CB1 receptor activity resulted in antidepressant-like activity in animal models. Direct stimulation of the receptors by administration of the CB1 receptor agonists HU210 or oleamide resulted in antidepressant-like effects in the rat forced swim test (FST) comparable to the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Jiang et al. (2005) showed that chronic administration of cannabinoids enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis, an effect previously proven to play a key role in antidepressant action. Such data suggest that CB1 activation leads to antidepressant-like properties.
This hypothesis is, however, in conflict with the findings that blockade of CB1 receptors leads to antidepressant-like actions in animal models. The administration of the CB1 receptor antagonists SR141716 and AM251 elicited antidepressant effects in the mice tail suspension test (TST) and the rat FST, respectively (Shearman et al., 2003Witkin et al., 2005). In accordance with these findings, several studies reported neurochemical changes induced by CB1 receptor antagonists that correspond to antidepressant action. These changes include enhanced efflux of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and dopamine in various brain regions associated with mood (Tzavara et al., 20012003).
While most of these studies used synthetic CB1 ligands, the antidepressant action exerted by phytocannabinoids have not been examined in detail, and hence impedes full understanding of the antidepressant effect of cannabis. One possible explanation is the lack of sufficient amounts of the isolated phytocannabinoids to conduct proper pharmacological evaluation. Accordingly, the primary objectives of the current study were to isolate the major cannabinoids from cannabis, and to evaluate their antidepressant-like actions using an automated mouse FST followed by the mouse TST. Since typical cannabinoids cause severe catalepsy and hypothermia which may impede escape attempts in these behavioral despair paradigms, the antidepressant evaluation was conducted at doses that did not exhibit these effects as determined by the established mouse tetrad assay. The presented data provide better understanding for the participation of these compounds to the overall antidepressant action of cannabis.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866040/?tool=pubme
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