Regenerative Medicine:Cannabis and Stem Cells


Although sometimes controversial, Regenerative Medicine does hold a key in our search for the cure to many diseases.  Regenerative Medicine, in a basic sense, is the “process of replacing or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function. This field holds the promise of regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the body by replacing damaged tissue and/or by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms to heal previously irreparable tissues or organs.  Below you will see how Cannabis plays a role in stem cell science.

Embryonic Stem Cell Proteomics
Human embryonic stem cells potentially represent an unlimited source of cells and tissues for regenerative medicine. Understanding signaling events that drive proliferation and specialization of these cells into various differentiated derivatives is of utmost importance for controlling their behavior”
Embryonic stem cell proteomics. Van Hoof D, Mummery CL, Heck AJ, Krijgsveld J. SourceNetherlands Institute of Developmental Biology, Hubrecht Laboratory, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands. d.vanhoof@niob.knaw.nl

Abstract
Human embryonic stem cells potentially represent an unlimited source of cells and tissues for regenerative medicine. Understanding signaling events that drive proliferation and specialization of these cells into various differentiated derivatives is of utmost importance for controlling their behavior in vitro. Major progress has been made in unraveling these signaling events with large-scale studies at the transcriptional level, but analysis of protein expression, interaction and modification has been more limited, since it requires different strategies. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics indicate that proteome characterization can contribute significantly to our understanding of embryonic stem cell biology. In this article, we review mass spectrometry-based studies of human and mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny, as well as studies of conditioned media that have been reported to support self-renewal of the undifferentiated cells in the absence of the more commonly used feeder cells. In addition, we make concise comparisons with related transcriptome profiling reports.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16901201
Expression and Function of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 and Their Cognate Cannabinoid Ligands in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
This work has not been addressed previously and yields new information on the function of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as components of a novel pathway regulating murine Embryonic Stem cell differentiation. This study provides insights into cannabinoid system involvement in Embryonic Stem cell survival and hematopoietic differentiation.
Expression and Function of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 and Their Cognate Cannabinoid Ligands in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
Shuxian Jiang,1 Yigong Fu,1 John Williams,2 JodiAnne Wood,2 Lakshmipathi Pandarinathan,2 Shiri Avraham,1 Alexandros Makriyannis,2 Shalom Avraham,#1 and Hava Karsenty Avraham#1* 1Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America 2Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Thomas Zwaka, Academic Editor Baylor College of Medicine, United States of America

Background
Characterization of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating the self-renewal/division and differentiation of stem cells is crucial in determining embryonic stem (ES) cell fate. ES cells differentiate into multiple hematopoietic lineages during embryoid body (EB) formation in vitro, which provides an experimental platform to define the molecular mechanisms controlling germ layer fate determination and tissue formation.
Methods and Findings
The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, that are activated by endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. CB1 receptor expression is abundant in brain while CB2 receptors are mostly expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, the expression and the precise roles of CB1 and CB2 and their cognate ligands in ES cells are not known. We observed significant induction of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors during the hematopoietic differentiation of murine ES (mES)-derived embryoid bodies. Furthermore, mES cells as well as ES-derived embryoid bodies at days 7 and 14, expressed endocannabinoids, the ligands for both CB1 and CB2. The CB1 and CB2 antagonists (AM251 and AM630, respectively) induced mES cell death, strongly suggesting that endocannabinoids are involved in the survival of mES cells. Treatment of mES cells with the exogenous cannabinoid ligand Δ9-THC resulted in the increased hematopoietic differentiation of mES cells, while addition of AM251 or AM630 blocked embryoid body formation derived from the mES cells. In addition, cannabinoid agonists induced the chemotaxis of ES-derived embryoid bodies, which was specifically inhibited by the CB1 and CB2 antagonists.
Conclusions
This work has not been addressed previously and yields new information on the function of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as components of a novel pathway regulating murine ES cell differentiation. This study provides insights into cannabinoid system involvement in ES cell survival and hematopoietic differentiation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1919431/?tool=pubmed
Cannabinoids Modulate Cell Survival In Embryoid Bodies
This study indicates that cannabinoid signalling is functionally implicated in the biology of differentiating ESCs (embryonic stem cells), being the first to show that activation of cannabinoid receptors is able to increase cell viability via reduction of cell death rate in EBs (embryoid bodies)
Cannabinoids modulate cell survival in embryoid bodies. Nones J, Spohr TC, Furtado DR, Sartore RC, Paulsen BS, Guimarães MZ, Rehen SK. Source Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Abstract
ESCs (embryonic stem cells) are potentially able to replace damaged cells in animal models of neural pathologies such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke and spinal cord lesions. Nevertheless, many issues remain unsolved regarding optimal culturing procedures for these cells. For instance, on their path to differentiation in vitro, which usually involves the formation of EBs (embryoid bodies), they may present chromosomal instability, loss of pluripotency or simply die. Therefore, finding strategies to increase the survival of cells within EBs is of great interest. Cannabinoid receptors have many roles in the physiology of the adult body, but little is known about their role in the biology of ESCs. Herein, we investigated how two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, may affect the outcome of ESCs aggregated as EBs. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) revealed that EBs expressed both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Aggregation of ESCs into EBs followed by 2-day incubation with a CB1/CB2 agonist reduced cell death by approximately 45%, which was reversed by a CB1 antagonist. A specific CB2 agonist also reduced cell death by approximately 20%. These data indicate that both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are involved in reducing cell death in EBs mediated by exogenous cannabinoids. No increase in proliferation, neural differentiation or changes in chromosomal stability was observed. This study indicates that cannabinoid signalling is functionally implicated in the biology of differentiating ESCs, being the first to show that activation of cannabinoid receptors is able to increase cell viability via reduction of cell death rate in EBs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19947926

Advertisements

6 thoughts on “Regenerative Medicine:Cannabis and Stem Cells

  1. Pingback: use of embryonic stem cells in medicine | StemEnhance™ and StemFlo™ | Stem Cell Enhancer

  2. Pingback: Erasing the Signs of Aging in Human Cells Is Now a Reality | Innovation Toronto

  3. Pingback: Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease With Cannabis | Cherry Girl

  4. Pingback: Finding a Cure For Parkinson’s Disease Through Cannabis | Cherry Girl

  5. Pingback: Neurodegeneration and Cannabis | Cherry Girl

What do you think? Questions, Comments, Opinions?

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s