How Some Green Can Help The Blues

Americans across the nation are facing mounting pressure from the economy and many other challenges.  Many are also suffering with depression and mood disorders along with added pressures.  The average American who has tried cannabis well knows the mood elevating effects which include uncontrollable giggling or laughter.  Of course it is also dependent on the right strain but that is where science comes in.  Below you will see studies where scientists have discovered why our moods are altered as well as further the knowledge we have on the interactions of cannabis’ compounds and our bodies.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Dopamine and Cannabinoid Interaction in the Modulation of Emotions and Cognition: Assessing the Role of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Neurons Expressing Dopamine D1 Receptors
Although cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are densely expressed in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), it is not fully understood to what extent they modulate emotional behaviors…….These results provided first direct evidence for a cross-talk between dopaminergic D1Rs and endocannabinoid system in terms of controlling negative affect.

Effects of Cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid and Cannabidiol in MPP(+) Affected Murine Mesencephalic Cultures
Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties… Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities… our data show that cannabinoids THC and THCA protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+) induced cell death.” (Possibly due to the cross-talk between  the dopamine and cannabinoid systems as seen in the study above)

Antidepressant-like Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated From Cannabis
Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.

 

Cannabis: Part Of A Healthy Diet?

Cannabis has been used in a variety of ways for thousands of years.  One of the unique things about the cannabis plant is how versatile and green the plant truly is.  It can be grown organically leaving behind virtually no footprint as well as being used in whole when harvested.  Many people believe in the power of natural remedies including a natural foods diet.  Cannabis, especially the seeds are known for their nutritional value including antioxidants.  Below you will find studies that look at the dietary value of cannabis as well as helpful side effects.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds
“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa), in addition to its nutritional value, has demonstrated positive health benefits, including the lowering of cholesterol and high blood pressure… As a result of the present research, the analyzed oils could be evaluated as an alternative to traditionally consumed vegetable oils…

Health Benefits of Herbs and Spices: the Past, the Present, the Future
Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future… The real challenge lies not in proving whether foods, such as herbs and spices, have health benefits, but in defining what these benefits are… At present, recommendations are warranted to support the consumption of foods rich in bioactive components, such as herbs and spices. With time, we can expect to see a greater body of scientific evidence supporting the benefits of herbs and spices in the overall maintenance of health and protection from disease.

Several Culinary and Medicinal Herbs Are Important Sources of Dietary Antioxidants
In a normal diet, intake of herbs may therefore contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants, and be an even better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups such as fruits, berries, cereals and vegetables.

Neuroprotective Antioxidants From Marijuana
As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.

Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Are Neuroprotective Antioxidants
Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or alpha-tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. These data also suggest that the naturally occurring, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol, may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia. 

 

Cannabis Prohibition: Is It Really Keeping Our Children Safe?

Many a bored teen will hang out with friends and be faced with choosing to use drugs or not.  Many government officials as well as parents tout the War on Drugs as a savior to our children.  They say that it keeps the drugs out of the hands of minors, off the streets and out of schools.  With the economy shining a spotlight onto finances one can quickly see how big of a budget the War on Drugs consumes.  With taking all the different facets of this war into account some wonder if its really working.

The War on Drugs has been waging for over 40 years.  It has cost the tax-payers over $14 trillion, billions annually.  There have been surges and wanes over the 40 years in intensity in the pursuit to eradicate drug use.  Over the years we have witnessed many tragedies and successes.  We have seen harmful drug use drop among the population but especially minors.  We have also seen over the last 18 months an intensity like never before in the use of intimidation tactics, SWAT style raids against state legal patients, abuse, or lethal force when pursuing cannabis users.

With more education and information available to teens today many are able to see through the hypocrisy and lies.  Teens can see you are lying especially when they try cannabis, realize that it is not going to kill them and that they actually like the effects.  With alcohol, who’s effects are similar to cannabis but with much more harm at stake, not only available for sale but advertised everywhere including major sports events it is hard to see the difference.  When they see you are lying about cannabis they question other “truths” you have been telling them.

Simple cannabis possession or other non-violent cannabis related offenses can claim your driver’s license, student loans, subsidized housing, or federal grants.  It can jail a parent or guardian even if they are state and county legal.  With a parent jailed it costs tax-payers more to incarcerate and breaks up a family where the children are thrown into the broken foster care system.  All of us should be asking if this is really what is best for our children.

Children that go into the system cost tax-payers millions each year.  It costs the child emotionally and psychologically.   Children that grow up in the system are bounced around to different homes causing them to act out, perform poorly in school, drop out, get into legal trouble and end up repeating their parents mistakes.  Should we really treat cannabis related offenses this harshly?  Are these tactics really working?

Cannabis use was slightly higher this year but more harmful drugs, including alcohol, were reportedly down according to a recent study among teens use.  Those that take a quick look around or have a conversation with a teen will learn how easily drugs are accessible.  Each year D.E.A. officials boast of their catches but in reality they have barely scratched the surface.  Even with officials raiding and confiscating thousands of plants, California’s number one cash crop was still cannabis.  The plain truth is that it is a plant that can be grown in anyone’s home.  It can be kept from anyone’s knowledge provided the grower is smart.  It can be accessed through many avenues including access through children.

Drug cartels have taken notice of America’s love of drugs and has very outstretched networks that effect our children.  The violence and corruption that comes along with the cartels are infiltrating our schools.  The cartels lure children with money or threats using them as drug runners, smugglers or sellers.  They know that if children are caught the punishment is less.  The also know that it takes less money to impress children.  In this way they have been able to utilize children to sell to others including their peers thus spurring not only more drug use but recruiting even more children.

California has a heavily burdened prison and welfare system.  They have a large amount of incarcerated inmates for cannabis related crimes.  Our nation has been fighting this war for far too long.  Even our children see the truth about cannabis.  Isn’t it time we started talking about this subject from a new perspective?  Our law enforcement agencies have received cuts across the states including here in California.  Our streets are not safer.  Drug use has not been eradicated even after over 40 years.  Families are broken, children are effected, states are bankrupt and in the end drugs are still easily accessible at any school.  Isn’t it time we end the War on Drugs and start with a new approach?

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Cannabis

This week the nation was heart broken to learn that little Avery Canahuati, 5 month-old girl who had SMA, died Monday April 30th.  Avery became an internet sensation with her bucket list.   It is estimated that spinal muscular atrophy occurs in between one-in-6,000 and one-in-20,000 births.  Avery’s parents want to spread the word about SMA so that more research can be done to better understand SMA.  Below you will see studies where scientists have studied the interaction of cannabis compounds when applied to SMA situations as well as a little background as to how the Endocannabinoid system ties into SMA.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

TRPV4 Mutations in Children With Congenital Distal Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Functional analysis of the novel p.P97R mutation in a heterologous system demonstrated a loss-of-function mechanism. Protein localization studies in muscle, skin, and cultured skin fibroblasts from both patients showed normal protein expression. No TRPV4 mutations were detected in four children with dSMA without bone or vocal cord involvement. Adding to the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of TRPV4-associated diseases, our results suggest that molecular testing of the TRPV4 gene is warranted in cases of congenital dSMA with bone abnormalities and vocal cord paralysis.

Alterations in the Ankyrin Domain of TRPV4 Cause Congenital Distal SMA, Scapuloperoneal SMA and HMSN2C
Expression of mutant TRPV4 constructs in cells from the HeLa line revealed diminished surface localization of mutant proteins. In addition, TRPV4-regulated Ca(2+) influx was substantially reduced even after stimulation with 4alphaPDD, a TRPV4 channel-specific agonist, and with hypo-osmotic solution. In summary, we describe a new hereditary channelopathy caused by mutations in TRPV4 and present evidence that the resulting substitutions in the N-terminal ankyrin domain affect channel maturation, leading to reduced surface expression of functional TRPV4 channels.

TRPV4-mediated channelopathies
In addition, there are some potential signaling events that can also be involved in these genetic disorders. In this review, we analyzed how and what extent certain cellular and molecular functions like oligomerization, surface expression, ubiquitination and functional interactions might be affected by these mutations.

TRPV Channels and Vascular Function
TRPV1 and TRPV4 are expressed in sensory nerves and can cause vasodilation through calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P release as well as mediating vascular function via the baroreceptor reflex (TRPV1) or via increasing sympathetic outflow during osmotic stress (TRPV4). Thus, TRPV channels play important roles in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular function in the vasculature.

Tempo and Mode in the Endocannabinoid System
Using an extended haplotype homozygosity analysis of SNP data from the HapMap database. Significant evidence (p < 0.05) of a positive “selective sweep” was exhibited by PTPN22, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and DAGLalpha. In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system is collectively under strong purifying selection, although some genes show evidence of adaptive evolution.

Cannabinoid Actions at TRPV Channels: Effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and Their Potential Relevance to Gastrointestinal Inflammation
Cannabinoids can affect both the activity and the expression of TRPV1-4 channels, with various potential therapeutic applications, including in the gastrointestinal tract.   Cannabinol and cannabigerol were significantly more efficacious at desensitizing this channel to the action of 4-α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD) than at activating it; (iii) CBC reduced TRPV1β, TRPV3 and TRPV4 mRNA in the jejunum, and TRPV3 and TRPV4 mRNA in the ileum of croton oil-treated mice.


Central Nervous Disease and Cannabis

It is estimated that over 50 million Americans are affected by disease or disorders of the spinal cord and brain.  Central nervous system disease affects either the spinal cord (myelopathy) or brain (encephalopathy).  Disorders includes spinal cord injury, memory loss, addiction, schizophrenia, learning disability, depression, violence, stroke, brain injury, dementia, and many others.  Scientists have studied cannabis compounds when applied to CNS disease and below you will find those studies.
Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in CNS Disease
The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors… Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease… Anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with disorders such as multiple sclerosis smoke cannabis to relieve disease-related symptoms. Cannabinoids can alleviate tremor and spasticity in animal models of multiple sclerosis… Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in Parkinson’s disease… The inhibitory effect of cannabinoids… suggests they may be potent neuroprotective agents…cannabinoids may be effective analgesics. Indeed, in clinical trials of postoperative and cancer pain and pain associated with spinal cord injury, cannabinoids have proven more effective than placebo… Acute adverse effects following cannabis usage include sedation and anxiety. These effects are usually transient and may be less severe than those that occur with existing therapeutic agents. The use of nonpsychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol may allow the dissociation of unwanted psychoactive effects from potential therapeutic benefits… This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment.

Cannabinoids.  Current Drug Targets CNS Disorders Neurol Disorders
Since the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, research into the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has steadily increased… Properties of CB receptor agonists that are of therapeutic interest include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, antiallergic effects, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects… CB receptor antagonists are under investigation for medical use in obesity and nicotine addiction. Additional potential was proposed for the treatment of alcohol and heroine dependency, schizophrenia, conditions with lowered blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease and memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease.

Antiepileptic Potential of Cannabidiol Analogs
These data suggest anticonvulsant requirements of 2 free phenolic hydroxyl groups, exact positioning of the terpinoid moiety in the resorcinol system and correct stereochemistry. Moreover, findings of separation of anticonvulsant from neurotoxic and psychoactive activities, notably with CBD diacetate, suggest that additional structural modifications of CBD may yield novel antiepileptic drugs.

Structure-Anticonvulsant Activity Relationships of Cannabidiol Analogs
The compounds were evaluated for anti-convulsant activity in seizure susceptible (AGS) rats and for neurotoxicity in the rat rotorod (ROT) test. Comparisons of stereoisomers of CBD and several analogs revealed a general lack of stereoselectivity for anticonvulsant and other CNS properties of this class of compounds.

Antiepileptic Potential of Cannabidiol Analogs
Also, CBD and all analogs were not active in tetrahydrocannabinol seizure-susceptible rabbits, the latter a putative model of cannabinoid psychoactivity in humans. These data suggest anticonvulsant requirements of 2 free phenolic hydroxyl groups, exact positioning of the terpinoid moiety in the resorcinol system and correct stereochemistry. Moreover, findings of separation of anticonvulsant from neurotoxic and psychoactive activities, notably with CBD diacetate, suggest that additional structural modifications of CBD may yield novel antiepileptic drugs.

An Electrophysiological Analysis of the Anticonvulsant Action of Cannabidiol on Limbic Seizures in Conscious Rats
An electrophysiological analysis of the anticonvulsant action of cannabidiol (CBD, from cannabis) on limbic seizures in conscious rats…CBD was the most efficacious of the drugs tested… Other properties of CBD were also noted: For example, compared with delta 9-THC, it is a much more selective anticonvulsant vis-à-vis motor toxicity…These characteristics, combined with its apparently unique set of electrophysiological properties, support the suggestion that CBD has therapeutic potential as an antiepileptic.

Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Cannabidiol Displays Antiepileptiform and Antiseizure Properties In Vitro and In Vivo
“CBD (cannabidiol) is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa whose structure was first described by Mechoulam and Shvo (1963); CBD has recently attracted renewed interest for its therapeutic potential in a number of disease states. CBD has been proposed to possess anticonvulsive, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties in humans… within the CNS, CBD has been proposed to be protective against epilepsy, anxiety, and psychosis and to ameliorate diseases.

Cannabidiol–Antiepileptic Drug Comparisons and Interactions in Experimentally Induced Seizures in Rats
“A comparison of the anticonvulsant… effects of cannabidiol (CBD), delta 9tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, ethosuximide and trimethadione) was made… These data indicate that CBD is an effective anticonvulsant with a specificity more comparable to drugs clinically effective in major than minor seizures. Furthermore, it appears that CBD enhances the anticonvulsant effects.

Cannabis and Liver Disease

The human liver is the largest organ in the body.  It has many functions as well as afflictions.  Some are inherited and others are through abuse or viruses.  There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Others can be the result of drugs, poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness, it’s called cirrhosis.  Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, can be one sign of liver disease.  Like other parts of your body, cancer can affect the liver. You could also inherit a liver disease such as hemochromatosis.  Below are studies that show the interaction of cannabis compounds and the liver.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System As A Novel Target For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
We have recently demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors display opposite effects in the regulation of liver fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Indeed, both receptors are up-regulated in the liver of cirrhotic patients, and expressed in liver fibrogenic cells. Moreover, CB1 receptors are profibrogenic and accordingly, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant reduces fibrosis progression in three experimental models. In keeping with these results, daily cannabis smoking is a risk factor for fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In contrast, CB2 display antifibrogenic effects, by a mechanism involving reduction of liver fibrogenic cell accumulation. These results may offer new perspectives for the treatment of liver fibrosis, combining CB2 agonist and CB1 antagonist therapy.

The Endocannabinoid System and Liver Diseases
The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases… molecules targeting the CB(1) and CB(2) receptors may represent potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of liver diseases. At present, the CB(1) antagonists represent the most attractive pharmaceutical tool to resolve fat accumulation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and to treat patients with cirrhosis, as they may slow the progression of fibrosis and attenuate the cardiovascular alterations associated with the advanced stage of the disease.

Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease
Marijuana has been used for its psychoactive and medicinal properties for millennia. As other plant-derived substances, marijuana has been slow to yield its secrets, with insights into its mechanism of action beginning to emerge only during the last decades… Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana… Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB(1) blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists.

Endogenous Cannabinoids in Liver Disease: Many Darts For A Single Target
Endogenous cannabinoids are ubiquitous lipid-signaling molecules able to partially mimic the actions produced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound responsible for most of the effects of marijuana… The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in advanced liver disease and also plays a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and liver fibrosis… These findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system may open new avenues for the therapeutic regulation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in advanced liver disease.

Cannabinoid Receptors As New Targets of Antifibrosing Strategies During Chronic Liver Diseases
Cannabinoid receptors as new targets of antifibrosing strategies during chronic liver diseases… Chronic liver injury exposes the patient to liver fibrosis and its end stage, cirrhosis, is a major public health problem worldwide… prevailing causes of cirrhosis include chronic alcohol consumption, hepatitis C virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis…. the authors recently demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system shows promise as a novel target for antifibrotic therapy during chronic liver injury. Indeed, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 promote dual pro- and antifibrogenic effects, respectively. Therefore, endocannabinoid-based therapies, combining CB2 agonists and CB1 antagonists may open novel therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of chronic liver diseases.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonism: A New Strategy For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
Hepatic fibrosis, the common response associated with chronic liver diseases, ultimately leads to cirrhosis, a major public health problem worldwide.  Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 receptors decreased fibrogenesis by lowering hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and reducing accumulation of fibrogenic cells in the liver after apoptosis and growth inhibition of hepatic myofibroblasts. In conclusion, our study shows that CB1 receptor antagonists hold promise for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Role of Cannabinoids in Chronic Liver Diseases
The role of the endocannabinoid system in hepatic physiology and pathologic conditions has been studied recently. Unquestionably, influencing endocannabinoid signaling may have a beneficial effect on delaying or even reversing hepatic fibrosis.

CB2 Receptors As New Therapeutic Targets For Liver Diseases
phytocannabinoids have long been used for recreational and therapeutic purposes… studies have unravelled pleiotropic functions of CB2 receptors under physiological and pathological conditions, including acute and chronic liver diseases. Additional functions may soon arise… These findings may open novel therapeutic avenues, upon clinical development of CB2-specific molecules.

Beneficial Paracrine Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Liver Injury and Regeneration
CONCLUSION: CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration following acute insult, via distinct paracrine mechanisms involving hepatic myofibroblasts. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Type I Modulates Alcohol-Induced Liver Fibrosis
CB1 expression is upregulated in human ALF (alcoholic liver fibrosis ) which is at least in part triggered by acetaldehyde (AA) and oxidative stress. Inhibition of CB1… or via genetic knock-out protects against alcoholic-induced fibrosis in vitro and in vivo….CB1 antagonists have been used in treating alcohol dependence without causing significant depression.

The Endocannabinoid System As A Key Mediator During Liver Diseases: New Insights and Therapeutic Openings
“The endocannabinoid system as a key mediator during liver diseases: new insights and therapeutic openings… hepatic cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) receptors display beneficial effects on alcoholic fatty liver, hepatic inflammation, liver injury, regeneration and fibrosis. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several lesions such as alcoholic and metabolic steatosis, liver fibrogenesis, or circulatory failure associated with cirrhosis… data obtained with peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists give real hopes in the development of active CB(1) molecules devoid of central adverse effects.

Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease: Classical Concepts and Recent Advances
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a primary consequence of heavy and prolonged drinking.  The observation that ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis share common pathways and genetic polymorphisms suggests operation of parallel pathogenic mechanisms. Future research involving genomics, epigenomics, deep sequencing and non-coding regulatory elements holds promise to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for ALD. There is also a need for adequate animal models to study pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level and targeted therapy.

The Role of the Cannabinoid System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
The lack of satisfactory results of alcohol dependence treatment force us to search for new directions of research.  SR141716 (rimonabant), a CB1 receptor antagonist, significantly lowers voluntary alcohol intake and motivation for its consumption in various experimental studies. Very encouraging results of preclinical studies were not completely confirmed in the clinical studies. However, further clinical studies are still necessary.

 

Interactions With Cannabis Compounds and the Human Endocannabinoid System in the Brain

We have know about the endocannabinoid system since the 60’s but we have only begun to scratch the surface of what our system is capable of.  This of course include the interaction with compounds found in the cannabis plant.  Below are studies that deal with the interaction of cannabis compounds and our endocannabinoid system in our brain.  Please feel free to share and spread the truth ~ Cherry Gurl

Multiple Functions of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Brain 2012
Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology.

Clinical Efficacy and Effectiveness of Sativex(®), A Combined Cannabinoid Medicine, in Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity 2012
Results from randomized, controlled trials have reported a reduction in the severity of symptoms associated with spasticity, leading to a better ability to perform daily activities and an improved perception of patients and their carers regarding functional status. These are highly encouraging findings that provide some much needed optimism for the treatment of this disabling and often painful symptom of MS.

Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-Convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures 2012
We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures… this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.

The Cannabinoid Receptor-2 is Involved in Allergic Inflammation 2012
These results clearly demonstrate that CB2 and its endogenous ligands participate not only in the acute, edematous phase of allergic dermatitis, but also in the chronic irreversible acanthosis reaction.

The Direct Pro-Fibrotic and Indirect Immune Anti-Fibrotic Balance of Blocking the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor 2012
Naïve CB2(-/-) mice had significantly decreased T-cell subsets. (II) Adoptive transfer of CB2(-/-) lymphocytes led to decreased fibrosis in the irradiated WT recipient as compared to animals receiving WT lymphocytes. Moreover, necro-inflammation also tended to decrease. (III) In-vitro, a CB2-antagonist directly increased human HSCs activation and increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation of mice/ human T-cells (healthy/ fibrotic) and their phagocytosis. Conclusions: CB2(-/-) lymphocytes exert an anti-fibrotic activity while lack of CB2-receptor in HSCs promotes fibrosis. These findings broaden our understanding of cannabinoid signaling in hepatic fibrosis beyond their activity solely in HSCs.

Therapeutic Use of Cannabis 2012
Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

Endocannabinoids Regulate Growth and Survival of Human Eccrine Sweat Gland-Derived Epithelial Cells 2012
The endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication.

 

The Human Prenatal Endocannabinoid System

Since the discovery of the human endocannabinoid system science has been busy trying to unlock the mysteries of this complex system.  Science has uncovered many interesting features of this system.  This includes the presence of this multi-function system in fetuses.   Below you will see studies on how science has uncovered in-dept knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in pre and post natal subjects.  I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

Multiple Roles For the Endocannabinoid System During the Earliest Stages Of Life: Pre- and Postnatal Development
The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), endogenous ligands (‘endocannabinoids’), synthesising and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development.  Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development…the endocannabinoid system appears to play an essential role for development and survival… the endocannabinoid system plays several key roles in pre- and postnatal development. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms involved… in order to design strategies for the treatment of conditions such as infertility, mental retardation and failure-to-thrive.

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance For Development and In Pediatric Disease
The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: Importance for development and in pediatric disease… it is suggested that children may respond positively to medicinal applications of cannabinoids without undesirable central effects. Excellent clinical results have previously been reported in pediatric oncology and in case studies of children with severe neurological disease or brain trauma. We suggest cannabinoid treatment for children or young adults with cystic fibrosis in order to achieve an improvement of their health condition including improved food intake and reduced inflammatory exacerbations.

On the Application of Cannabis In Paediatrics and Epileptology
An initial report on the therapeutic application of delta 9-THC (THC) (Dronabinol, Marinol) in 8 children resp. adolescents suffering from the following conditions, is given: neurodegenerative disease, mitochondriopathy, posthypoxic state, epilepsy, posttraumatic reaction. THC effected reduced spasticity, improved dystonia, increased initiative, increased interest in the surroundings, and anticonvulsive action…possibility that THC-induced effects on ion channels and transmitters may explain its therapeutic activity seen in epileptic patients.

The Endocannabinoid-CB(1) Receptor System In Pre- and Postnatal Life
The endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor system in pre- and postnatal life.. CB(1) receptors display a transient presence in white matter areas of the pre- and postnatal nervous system, suggesting a role for CB(1) receptors in brain development…Further observations suggest that children may be less prone to psychoactive side effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or endocannabinoids than adults. The medical implications of these novel developments are far reaching and suggest a promising future for cannabinoids in pediatric medicine for conditions including “non-organic failure-to-thrive” and cystic fibrosis.

Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation In Adulthood
The appetite-stimulating effects of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) have been known since ancient times, and appear to be effected through the incentive and rewarding properties of foods. Investigations into the biological basis of the multiple effects of cannabis have yielded important breakthroughs in recent years… exciting progress in the understanding of how the endocannabinoid CB receptor systems influence appetite and body weight is stimulating the development of therapeutic orexigenic and anorectic agents. Furthermore, the role of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation for milk suckling in newborns may open new doors toward understanding nonorganic failure-to-thrive in infants, who display growth failure without known organic cause.

Ontogenetic Development of Cannabinoid Receptor Expression and Signal Transduction Functionality in the Human Brain
Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail.   This early pattern of expression of functionally active cannabinoid receptors, along with the transient and atypical localization of these proteins in white matter areas during the prenatal stages, suggest an specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the events related to human neural development.

 

Individualized Treatments: Key To Cannabis’ Success

With so many new scientific discoveries published for the world to see many patients are now gaining a better understanding of how cannabis actually helps them.  Millions of patients have found relief in cannabis for a wide range of afflictions with millions more that have found relaxation.  Cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes for thousands of years.  But it wasn’t until the 60s when the endocannabinoid system was discovered that we really began to understand the effects.  In 2011 the genetics of the cannabis plant was mapped with that we found that it was not just a plant but a complex world filled with compounds that have many applications.

Patients now have the option of learning what compounds exist in the cannabis plant and how that can help them personally.  Currently there are companies one in particular, GW Pharmaceuticalsthat is seeking FDA approval of a new drug that contains actual cannabinoids, not synthetic, which is currently approved and on the market.  Their mouth spray contains a blend of cannabinoids that they have found to commonly bring relief.

The problem is now that patients are armed with more in-dept information of not only their illness but of cannabis and its compounds they are no longer happy with a “one size fits all” treatment.  Why and how cannabis interacts with our system is becoming more widely known.  With this comes the knowledge that when using cannabis the key to its success is using the right mix of compounds.  Many studies point to the fact that you can not just isolate THC or just CBD but  that its the correct balance of multiple compounds that achieves the desired effect.  This is important to keep in mind when researching your ailment.  Looking for strains that match up with your needs can be very tricky so it is recommended that you seek help when undertaking this.

This is just one more reason why legalization is important.  In states that have legalized medical use of cannabis, dispensaries have flourished.  This allows first-time patients to be guided through the process with experienced patients and experts.  This also allows for supervision of a professional doctor instead of just yourself.  Dispensaries offer a wide array of strain choices within sativa, indica and hybrid varieties.  Professionals also help with choosing the right delivery method for you.

Cannabis use has come a long way since the casual days of the 60s.  Today patients are faced with many choices from natural buds,concentrates, tinctures, edibles and more.  In the states that have passed medical use laws patients standards have been raised.  Gone are the days when people were satisfied with whatever the guy on the corner had that day, no questions asked.  Today patients can inquire about anything from if a bud is organic to what the percentage of THC, CBD or CBN a product contains.

Many dispensaries are now testing their products to not only raise industry standards but to educate patients and promote their best buds.  In today’s market we see dispensaries competing for business giving patients the best selection.  Patients are becoming more educated on the differences between not only the strains but the major compound contents.  With the database of knowledge on individual strains and their compounds becoming not only ever increasing but more accessible it is only a matter of time before we have a better grasp to really start helping patients.

One of the largest shortfalls of today’s medical community is individualized care.  Many times patients are quickly shuffled through their appointment with their doctor trying out different therapies that have worked for other patients.  We do not have the availability of affordable technology to scan or sequence every patients illness or cancer.  Someday we will have wide-spread use of technology that allows doctors to give patients exactly what their bodies need.  Gone will be the days when doctors guess if a medication will work or kill you.  We know today that the technology exists to DNA sequence a cancerous tumor.  We already know that if we have the right combination of cannabis compounds it can shrink a tumor.  Think of all the loved ones that we could save with the right individualized care.

Today’s medications can cause many side effects including respiratory failure, liver damage and even death.  Many times patients are left with the option of doctors guessing which medication will be most helpful with the least damage and many times are prescribed more medication later on to combat damaged caused by previous treatments.  Cannabis has been praised for its forgiving window for patients in regards to damage from side effects.  Common knowledge of no reported overdoses or deaths from cannabis is another appealing factor.  Many have discovered that the benefits of cannabis outweigh the non-lethal side effects and have stopped taking all other medications.

With patients today educated on not only their illness but the available treatment options it is no wonder that they no longer want to accept only what the industry is willing to provide.  Many have taken their health into their own hands.  We have discovered how vital individualized care is when dealing with cannabis and hopefully have sparked interest into other avenues where this can be applied.  It is no longer in the best interest of the nation to rely so heavily on the current industries but instead look for not only natural options but ones that will not do harm.  We can look to the future for the technologies that can one day save us but for today we need to keep our option of being able to choose our own strain combination for ourselves until we all can have individualized care.  To do this we must continue in our fight for legalization.

Dear Mr. President

I know this year is a very important year for you.  It is just as important for millions of Americans across the nation.  I write to ask you a question.  In an election year that many feel is vital we would like to know why the issue of cannabis has not been properly discussed?  I have read the releases from the administration but it fails to properly address our concerns.  The issue has been ignored at many venues where it was the leading question.

After 40 years of this War on Drugs where have we gotten and was it worth it?  In this economy many people are hurting and everyone is looking for ways to save money.  The War on Drugs cost taxpayers billions of dollars each year and is responsible for many tragic stories.

Not only has it cost us money but it has cost us as a society as well.  Millions of Americans have been shuffled through the judicial system destroying their lives many for simple possession.  This problem has also exposed racial divides and furthered the tension in the country.  People have lost faith in law enforcement in many cities.  In Mexico over 50,000 have died in the last 6 years directly resulting from this war.  The Cartels are getting richer and the demand is still there.

There is a sizable and growing group of supporters across the nation.  75% support medical use and the number for legalization for adults over 21 is rapidly growing.  In this economy where many are downsizing the cannabis industry is booming.  The states that have legalized cannabis have seen a sharp increase in revenue both in taxes and fees as well as residual income for local communities.  When properly regulated and implemented we have seen excellent examples shine through.

Consumers no longer want to go to the street corner dealer but instead enjoy the safety and security of dispensaries.  There patients can find natural, organic strain choices with professional help and options in consumption.  They can feel confident that they are paying taxes and contributing towards the community instead of the black market.

With legalization comes regulation which assists in restricting access to minors.  Today minors are restricted from buying and accessing alcohol on their own due to strict regulations.  We have seen the devastating effects that alcohol prohibition caused.  Since its repeal we have also seen the effects that it has had on this nation.  From responsible use to fatalities from car accidents, consumption and domestic violence alcohol has been responsible.  Today alcohol is advertised during major sporting events, radio, TV, movies billboards and more exposing children at a young age.

There is too much proof both in scientific studies and in testimonies to deny the many benefits of cannabis.   With the knowledge we have gained so far patients of all kinds have found relief with cannabis.  We have also seen miraculous cases such as Cash Hyde overcome childhood cancer.  We have come much further than smoking on a Friday night but rather uncovered just the surface of what looks to be exciting and promising discoveries.

With all these factors in mind our community is wondering why our our President and candidates, who are vying for the highest power in the country for the next four years  and who directly effect this issue, continue to ignore us?  We want to know why an issue that directly effects millions and indirectly effects us all would not be considered?

We are looking for a leader who is willing to stand up to the opposition and show people that legalization can be done responsibly with regulations and state approval.  We need a leader who will take us seriously and address our needs.  We are looking for that leader this year and it is for that reason it needs to be addressed.  Millions of voters are waiting it is time to address cannabis.

We Can Not Afford To Continue The War On Drugs

The Vice President visited with South American leaders but continued the hardened stance against drug legalization despite opposing opinions from the other side.  While the US government, in their fight against drugs, has proven its disregard for its own citizens they have also shown that they are willing to sacrifice over 50,000 Mexicans as well as thousands in other Latin countries, murdered, some decapitated and dumped in public streets.  By continuing this costly, bloody and utterly disastrous War on Drugs they have proven that they will stop at nothing to continue their agenda.    Over 40 years of continual war on drugs has cost this country dearly and many ask is it really worth it?

With all that is going on in the country today it’s no wonder that people start to ignore some issues and continue on with more pressing matters. But when taking a further look into the cannabis issue it has more to do with every day life than what appears at face value.  There are multiple layers to this complex issue.  Cannabis and the War on Drugs impacts the economy, citizen’s rights, society, families, the individual user and much more.  It impacts all of us in one way or another many without us realizing it.

With the economy in the shape that it’s currently in, budget cuts rampant, layoffs, department downsizing; cities across the country are having to prioritize and make cuts often deciding which cases are the most important and letting others slide including violent crimes.  With cuts to law enforcement cities across the nation see crimes rates rise and the value decrease which impacts us all.  Each year the government spends billions fighting the War on Drugs. That money could instead be used more wisely.  One wonders then with these limited resources why cannabis, a non lethal plant,  continues to top their priorities list despite saying the administration would do otherwise?

We have spent trillions of dollars fighting this War on Drugs and what we have ended with is a broken country both financially and socially.  The government has criminalized a natural plant and taken a hardened stance against it despite the growing support nationally for legalization especially for medical reasons.  The government has continued to deny any benefits of cannabis and still stands by its classification of it as a scheduled 1 substance along side such hard drugs as heroin and deemed harsher than cocaine.  The government needs to wake up and realize that this war is not worth the cost and needs to end.   That will happen when we come together and make our voices heard.  We need to take this issue to the forefront and make people, make the president, address it.

In the last three years we saw more attacks from the federal government during the Obama administration than those of Presidents Bush and Clinton.  We saw federal raids on legitimate patients and their caregivers.  We saw taxpayer’s money wasted fueling this war on citizens.  We saw the federal government trample all over our rights in its search for criminals, millions who’s only crime was simple possession.

The laws that were passed soon after the 9/11 attacks, that were thought to be used only for the protection against terrorists attacks, have continuously been used in the War against Drugs and American citizens.  The laws have been used more in the search for drugs than for terrorists.  We need to stand up for our rights and demand that use of a plant should not constitute giving up our constitutional rights.

Currently schools across the country are in need of funding and money spent on the War on Drugs could instead go to make our schools excellent again.  By having smart regulations, correct zoning in cities and responsible use, children will not be effected in the manner everyone fears.  Instead of an underground network of criminals you would have a respected cannabis community that is not selling your children drugs. 

The argument for denying legalization for the sake of children may at face value have merit but when looking closer is ridiculous.  Parents need to take a leading role in teaching their children about cannabis, responsibility for choices and the pros and cons of drug use.  This issue of children’s use of cannabis or not is not a government decision but a parental one.  Parents play a huge role in their child’s influences, view towards drugs, access and more.  They should be the one making that decision to restrict cannabis or drug use.

By keeping cannabis illegal you keep it from being regulated which means that the product is out there with no one saying who can and can not have it.  Which also means that the person selling it doesn’t necessarily care how old your kid is when they try to buy pot only if they have the right amount of cash.  Alcohol by contrast, which consequently can be fatal especially to children and teens, is legal, regulated and not readily accessible to children.  Those worried about dispensary signs keep in mind that alcohol is advertised during national sporting events, local radio, TV, movies, billboards and more, giving children much more exposure.

In states across the US there is pending legislation for cannabis use with some aiming to take control and address the obvious problems caused by the War on Drugs.  The state of Washington has a great set up already in place for alcohol which would nicely accommodate the cannabis industry as well.  The citizens have gotten the necessary signatures validated for a legalization initiative for adults 21 and older to consume cannabis to appear before the voters in the November 2012 ballots. This has a great potential for a positive financial impact on the local and state economy allowing for more income, a much-needed relief especially in these times.

With all the facts stacking up against the War on Drugs and the hardened stance against legalization you have to ask yourself why are we continuing this costly war?  We need to address this issue and demand and end to this war.  We must urge our representatives to support rescheduling cannabis and repealing the devastating effects of prohibition.  The fight for legalization has been a long one but with quick action we can take hold of this opportunity and finally achieve our goals.

This guy can afford the War on Drugs (head of Sinola cartel)

The Miraculous Human CB1 Receptor

For over 50 years we have known of the human endocannabinoid system and with that the discovery of the CB1 receptor.  The CB1 receptor is found in the brain and is involved in a lot of functions.  Below you will see studies on the CB1 receptor and how they function within the body and with cannabis.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Mitochondrial CB(1) Receptors Regulate Neuronal Energy Metabolism
The mammalian brain is one of the organs with the highest energy demands, and mitochondria are key determinants of its functions. Thus, mtCB(1) receptors directly modulate neuronal energy metabolism, revealing a new mechanism of action of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in the brain.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Trafficking and the Role of the Intracellular Pool: Implications For Therapeutics
Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB(1)), an abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the CNS, is currently of significant interest as a therapeutic target.  These findings have significant implications for the interpretation of CB(1) biochemical studies and the design and application of cannabinoid therapeutics.

Cannabinoid Receptor Trafficking In Peripheral Cells Is Dynamically Regulated By A Binary Biochemical Switch 2012
The cannabinoid G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CB(1) and CB(2) are expressed in different peripheral cells.  This study describes, for the first time, the dynamic nature of CB receptor trafficking in the context of a biochemical switch, which may have implications for studies on the cell-type specific effects of cannabinoids and our understanding of the regulation of CB receptor cell surface expression.

Cannabis And The Human Immune System

For over 50 years science has been trying to unravel the questions that surround our endocannabinoid system.  Science has discovered many exciting breakthroughs including how cannabis, our endocannabinoid stem and our immune system work together.  below you will see studies on how this has been studied.  Please feel free to do your own research, seek out and share the truth ~ Cherry Girl

Immune Control By Endocannabinoids – New Mechanisms of Neuroprotection?
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and represents a local messenger system within and between the nervous and immune system. Apparently, the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune control and neuroprotection.

Cannabinoid Treatment Suppresses the T-helper Cell-Polarizing Function of Mouse Dendritic Cells Stimulated With Legionella Pneumophila Infection
“In conclusion, our results show that a major cellular target of THC-induced immune suppression of Th1 immunity is the dendritic cell and that the drug attenuates polarizing function… THC… might be of use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus, and therefore might be in the class of anti-inflammatory drugs recognized to interfere with earlier stages of immunity by suppressing DC activation.

Role of Cannabinoid Receptors In Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppression of IL-12p40 In Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected With Legionella Pneumophila
These results suggest that THC-induced suppression of serum IL-12 is partly due to a suppression of IL-12 production by dendritic cells and that G(i) signaling and cannabinoid receptors, but not TRPV1, are involved in this suppressive effect.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol As In Vivo Chemoattractant For Dendritic Cells and Adjuvant For Th1 Response To A Soluble Protein
The decision-making mechanisms that determine the choice of the appropriate effector immune response to a microbial challenge are poorly understood. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), injected intradermally in mice together with a soluble protein and a T helper-2 (Th2) priming Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonist during primary immunization, shifts the memory response to the Th1 type. As 2-AG may be induced in tissues by various stimuli at concentrations similar to that used in our study, this evidence might be of a wide-ranging pathophysiological relevance.

Presence and Regulation of the Endocannabinoid System In Human Dendritic Cells
Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, have been detected in several blood immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, basophils and lymphocytes. However, their presence in dendritic cells, which play a key role in the initiation and development of the immune response, has never been investigated.  These findings demonstrate for the first time that the endogenous cannabinoid system is present in human dendritic cells and can be regulated by cell activation.

The Endocannabinoid System: Mechanisms Behind Metabolic Homeostasis and Imbalance
The endocannabinoid system: mechanisms behind metabolic homeostasis and imbalance…EC agonists and receptors have been identified in the brain, liver, and peripheral adipose tissue, and the EC system is known to affect metabolism in these areas and others through neuromodulatory signals. Meal size, body weight, and numerous metabolic factors such as triglyceride and cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance can be affected via the EC system.

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Modulates Antigen Processing By Macrophages
THC differentially modulates the capacity of macrophages to process antigens that is necessary for the activation of CD4+ T cells… delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol modulates antigen processing by macrophages.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Key To Cannabis’ Healing Success

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 60’s science has been hard at work trying to unlock the mysteries surrounding cannabis and the interaction of the human body.  For thousands of years cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes.  Below you will see studies that explain a little as to why cannabis works the way it does within our system.  You will see how CB1 and   CB2 receptors interact with cannabis and how they play a key role in its therapeutic properties.   I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The CB(2) Cannabinoid Receptor Controls Myeloid Progenitor Trafficking: Involvement In the Pathogenesis of An Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Gene In T Cells By Cannabinoids
Effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated by two types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. In this report, we investigated whether CBs regulate gene expression of their cognate receptors in T cells and studied underlying mechanisms in CD4+ Jurkat T cells.  In summary, up-regulation of CB1 in T lymphocytes in response to CBs themselves may facilitate or enhance the various immunomodulatory effects related to CBs.

Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids In A Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids may act as immunosuppressive compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders… Overall, the data presented may have potential therapeutic implications in demyelinating pathologies such as MS; in particular, the involvement of cannabinoid receptor CB2 would enable nonpsychoactive therapy suitable for long-term use.

The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein
These results further support the proposed role of the CB1 receptor in controlling intraocular pressure, helping to explain the antiglaucoma properties of marijuana.

CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) From Various Donor Types
Marijuana cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, are G protein-coupled receptors… expressed in brain as well as cells of the periphery…results suggest that CBR expression is relatively constant across the human population.

Cannabinoid-receptor 1 Null Mice Are Susceptible To Neurofilament Damage and Caspase 3 Activation
Administered cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate signs of CNS inflammatory disease in a number of animal models, including allergic encephalomyelitis. More recently, neuroprotective actions have been attributed to activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in a number of in vitro and in vivo models…The data presented further strengthen the hypothesis of neuroprotection elicited via cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling.

Detailed Characterization of CB2 Receptor Protein Expression In Peripheral Blood Immune Cells From Healthy Human Volunteers Using Flow Cytometry
These data provide the first detailed analysis of CB2 protein levels in blood leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and identifies the cell types which could be targeted with CB-mimetic drugs in humans.

Cannabinoid-Induced Immune Suppression and Modulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells
The study of marijuana cannabinoid biology has led to many important discoveries in neuroscience and immunology. These studies have uncovered a new physiological system, the endocannabinoid system, which operates in the regulation of not only brain function but also the regulation of the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are suppressed by these agents leading to the hypothesis that these drugs may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this report, we review current information on cannabinoid ligand and receptor biology, mechanisms involved in immune suppression by cannabinoids with emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, and preclinical and clinical models analyzing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Immunoregulation of A CB2 Receptor Agonist In A Murine Model of NeuroAIDS
Chronic HIV-1 infection commonly affects behavioral, cognitive, and motor functions in the infected human host and is commonly referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)…Our results support the notion that CB2 receptor agonists may be a viable therapeutic candidate for HAND.

Anandamide Prior To Sensitization Increases Cell-Mediated Immunity In Mice
The endocannabinoid system has become a topic of great interest in pharmacology due to its remarkable distribution in mammal organisms and capacity to play a modulatory role on several physiological systems, including modulation of immunity. Many studies have shown that administration of cannabinoids causes inhibitory effects on immune cells, including decreased proliferation and antigen-presenting cell (APC) co-stimulatory activity. In contrast, other groups have shown that some cannabinoids might present stimulatory actions on macrophage activity and T cell activation…Anandamide prior to sensitization increases cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Endogenous Modulators of Synaptic Transmission: Cannabinoid Regulation In the Supraoptic Nucleus
The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) are a major source of both systemic and central release of the neurohypophyseal peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP).  Further study of eCB signalling in the SON, including its interaction with AVP neurons, promises to extend our understanding of the synaptic regulation of SON physiological function.

 

 

Breaking News: CA Police Visits

Received the following message from ASA for an alert for people regarding the Siskiyou county area.

Unfortunately, Americans for Safe Access (“ASA”) has heard reports from Siskiyou County that its Sheriff’s Department has compiled a “list” of medical marijuana patients and are visiting them to ensure compliance with California’s medical marijuana laws.  While ASA expects to put an end to this unlawful practice, it imparts the following information to medical marijuana patients throughout the State who are confronted by the police at their home.  First, do not let the police into your home without a warrant.  You should always be polite, but do not let them into your home without a warrant.  Second, there is no reason for you to present the officers with your physician’s recommendation, unless they have probable cause.  Based on the reports ASA has received, officers in Siskiyou County are asking for recommendations, even without probable cause that any crime has been committed under California law.  Lastly, try to get the names of the officers and, if they have cards, get them as well.  They will likely not give you their first names, but, if this question is asked appropriately, it may create a more professional environment for all involved.

If you have had an encounter with the Siskiyou Sheriff’s Department because you were on their list of medical marijuana patients, we encourage you to contact ASA at(510) 251-1856 ext. 304.  You can read more about medical cannabis compliance checks by clicking here.

Citizens Drive, Consume Alcohol, Use Tobacco And Take Prescriptions So Why Not Cannabis?

With all the heated debates over cannabis legalization going on around the country one would wonder why there is so much buzz over a plant.  Cannabis, specifically medical cannabis, has been at the forefront of discussions all around the country.  The federal government has continued its harsh stance against legalization despite the mounting evidence of its benefits, as backed up by the Vice President’s actions in Latin America this week.

We have looked at the issue of legalization in many lights but one way that has not been discussed is that of the individual.  Legally we are given responsibility for our actions and our bodies when we drive, consume alcohol, tobacco or prescriptions despite deaths each year.  Most of us are reasonably responsible adults who are depended upon to carry out many important tasks and make many important decisions including raising children.  Doctors are entrusted with our lives including cancer treatments and brain surgeries but they are not trusted to prescribe cannabis medicinally.

We are each supposed to be responsible for ourselves including the care of our bodies.  With this it would naturally be assumed that one would also have control of what goes into one’s body and what treatments or relaxations methods one chooses to use.  Americans range from lawyers, doctors, congresspeople, CEO s, mothers or any other law abiding citizens.  Why are we not trusted to make a responsible decision when it comes to cannabis?

This leaves one to wonder in regards to cannabis when did the government decide we were incapable of making such a personal decision?  When did they decide that they know more about whats better for each of us individually than we do ourselves?  It is insulting when you look at it in this light; that the government does not feel that each of us are capable of self-control.  As a parent I am insulted that they question my parenting abilities to raise a competent person capable of choosing wisely for themselves including refraining from letting cannabis “take over their lives” as the government wants us to believe happens all the time.  In reality each of us are capable of deciding how to, when to and how much to use cannabis if at all.  Each of us are capable of researching and talking with our doctors to see if cannabis is right for us.

The government allows drivers 16 and older to get behind the wheel of a car despite the harm drivers cause all across the nation.  There are over 40,000 deaths a year as a result of vehicles and their drivers.  People now more than ever are distracted with texting, videos, talking, browsing and more making them even more dangerous.

The government also allows for adults 21 and older to consume alcohol even though it causes over 750,000 deaths a year, domestic violence, rise in crime rates, child abuse, liver damage and many more tragedies.  The government feels that you can responsibly use and monitor your consumption of alcohol even though there are over 17 million alcoholics in the US.

The government allow adults 18 and older to use tobacco even after concrete evidence that it causes cancer and death not only to the user but those around them that are exposed.  Cigarettes have been linked to lung cancer, emphysema and more.  Each year it is estimated that 443,000 die from tobacco related issues.

Each year over 100,000 Americans die from medication by overdose, interactions or other medication related issues.  Citizens are entrusted with sometimes fatal medications monitored only by themselves and some doctor supervision.  Doctors on the whole still do not have sophisticated systems between themselves and pharmacies to prevent drug interactions or overdose.

There are many larger responsibilities we handle than a personal choice of using cannabis or not.  Even legally we are given much larger responsibilities so with that in mind the obvious question is why would using this plant in a responsible manner not be one our responsibilities as well?

Despite all the mounting evidence of the beneficial properties of cannabis and the fact there has never been a reported case of overdose, the government refuses to recognize that Americans are responsible enough and should have control over their decision concerning cannabis.  The decision to use or not to use cannabis is a personal choice and one that should be used with facts in hand and government nowhere in sight.

Although cannabis does not cause death, people still do.  People need to live up to that responsibility by using cannabis wisely and responsibly.  We shouldn’t have to prove anything to the government but if we are going to change things in this country being a good example is the first step.  This includes responsibly using cannabis and restricting access to children.

Educating others is the second step.  We need to show others that cannabis is not the evil drug that the government has made it out to be but instead a healing plant.  It can be used responsibly to wind down at the end of a long day much like wine or beer or in more potent version medicinally for patients.  In the end this is just a plant and one that can be used naturally without changing its form which can not be said for many other drugs legal or not.

Educating others is key to our success in legalization.  Others need to know the truth and I encourage all to go out and seek the truth.  Learn the real facts of cannabis.  Then contact your representative and ask for their support in repealing cannabis prohibition.  There are several pending legislation all over the country.  Help 2012 be a monumental year, one that we reach our goal!

The Many Functions of the Human Endocannabinoid System And How Cannabis Can Help

The endocannabinoid system was discovered in the 60’s and since then scientists have been trying to unravel the mysteries surrounding this system.  At first some thought it was merely the receptors for the cannabis plant but we soon found that the endocannabinoid system is tied to several functions throughout the human body and in recent years become a target for therapies.  Below you will find studies that show how the endocannabinoid system is involved in many functions.  Please share with all and I encourage you to do your own research seeking out the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System: A Revolving Plate In Neuro-Immune Interaction In Health and Disease 2012
The cannabinoid system has been shown to be involved in regulating the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are modulated by these agents, thus raising the hypothesis that these compounds may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. The special properties of endocannabinoids as neurotransmitters, their pleiotropic effects and the impact on immune function show that the endocannabinoid system represents a revolving plate of neural and immune interactions.

Endocannabinoid Signaling As A Synaptic Circuit Breaker In Neurological Disease
Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal plants in the history of medicine. It was used in various therapeutic applications from pain to epilepsy… renewed interest has been fueled by major discoveries revealing that cannabis-derived compounds act through a signaling pathway in the human body. Here we review recent advances showing that endocannabinoid signaling is a key regulator of synaptic communication throughout the central nervous system. Its underlying molecular architecture is highly conserved in synapses from the spinal cord to the neocortex, and as a negative feed-back signal, it provides protection against excess presynaptic activity. The endocannabinoid signaling machinery operates on demand in a synapse-specific manner; therefore, its modulation offers new therapeutic opportunities for the selective control of deleterious neuronal activity in several neurological disorders…Endocannabinoid signaling as a synaptic circuit breaker in neurological disease.

The Endogenous Cardiac Cannabinoid System: A New Protective Mechanism Against Myocardial Ischemia
The pharmacological (and recreational) effects of cannabis have been known for centuries. However, it is only recently that one has identified two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors, namely CB1 and CB2-receptors, which mediate the numerous effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids. Logically, the existence of cannabinoid-receptors implies that endogenous ligands for these receptors (endocannabinoids) exist and exert a physiological role. Thus, the endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system, through activation of CB2-receptors, appears to be an important mechanism of protection against myocardial ischemia.

The Endocannabinoid Nervous System: Unique Opportunities For Therapeutic Intervention
The active principle in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to have wide therapeutic application for a number of important medical conditions… Delta(9)-THC binds to and activates two known cannabinoid receptors found in mammalian tissue, CB1 and CB2. The development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics has focused predominantly on the CB1 receptor, based on its predominant and abundant localization in the CNS.. cannabinoid agonists are relatively safe and provide therapeutic efficacy, but that they also induce psychotropic side effects… This review attempts to link current understanding of the basic biology of the endocannabinoid nervous system to novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This new knowledge may facilitate the development of cannabinoid receptor-targeted therapeutics with improved safety and efficacy profiles.
A Critical Review Of The Cannabinoid Receptor As A Drug Target For Obesity Management
The discovery of cannabinoids, with the well-known stimulatory effect of Cannabis sativa on appetite, has offered a new drug target for obesity treatment. Cannabinoids act on two different receptors: CB1 receptors which are sited in the brain and many peripheral tissues, and CB2 receptors which are primarily found in immune system cells. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists act centrally by blocking CB1 receptors, thereby reducing food intake…This review discusses how close cannabinoid receptor antagonists are to the IDEAL ANTI-OBESITY DRUG, with respect to their mechanisms of action, clinical effectiveness and safety.


Why We Should Pay Attention….At Least Some Of The Time

I remember as a child my grandpa talking with me about the politics of the U.S. and around the world.  I remember him rattling off different names of important people and all the scandalous things happening at the time.  My grandfather was born in 1938 and has seen a lot change in this world.  He’s followed politics longer than I have been alive and yet this passionate subject, for him, did absolutely nothing for me and felt more like a foreign language.  Once I moved out on my own and got my first real taste of freedom I thought I was free to do as I pleased.  I continued that blissful thought until my late twenties where I discovered cannabis.

I went through life not paying any attention to what was going on in politics because it wasn’t effecting me.  Then I started getting blinding intense pain headaches.  I went through a series of doctors, specialists, tests, machines, naturalists, chiropractors, medications, diets and supplements as well as a few other treatments.  For 4 years I sought out a treatment, a cause and a relief from the pain!  I subjected myself to all kinds of different prescriptions some that made my brain feel like it was on fire, made my body numb and on one occasion a near blackout on I-5 in the middle of Seattle from one drug that was supposedly safe.

It was then while at a party I discovered cannabis and all its natural benefits.  After finding cannabis I finally found relief.  I found something that not only took away the pain but lifted my spirits.  In one aspect it was a huge relief that I was not looking at a life where I had to constantly remind myself not to think of the pain always keeping myself busy to distract myself.  In the other aspect cannabis’ natural compounds helped with the depression that set in from being in pain for 4 years.  It really was a prayer answered.

I was fortunate enough to live in a state that had legalized medical marijuana so I was able to obtain a doctor’s recommendation that allowed me to purchase or grow cannabis.  It wasn’t until I walked into my first dispensary and started really talking to the cannabis community that I realized I actually needed to pay attention to politics.  Having control over your treatment, over your medication is priceless.  Having an option that is not fatal, that is natural and affordable is something everyone should enjoy.

Before legalization patients had to obtain their cannabis from the streets or risk growing it themselves.  If you buy on the black market you do not always have control over what you get and typically can not ask what strain it is, does it have molds, pests, chemicals or if its organic.  The streets also do not care if you are 37 or 15 only if you have cash.  On the other hand if a patient decides to grow they risk life as they know it.  If they are caught citizens face all kinds of situations from large legal bills, jail or prison time, losing their kids, job, house or assets as well as a stigma from society being labeled as a criminal.  Even being raided by the police is very tramatizing to the family as they typically break down the door and treat you like armed drug lords, drawing their weapons on your family.

This is why Californians passed prop 215 and later SB420.  This is just one reason why its important to at the very least check in on politics and whats going on in the world at least once in awhile.  While I was out searching for a cure to my pain trying all different kinds of legal chemical narcotics millions of Americans were being shuffled through the justice system for using, possessing or growing a plant.  Even after those two legislation were passed California patients are still having issues from the government with 2011 proving to be an aggressive year for the federal raids on patients.  

It wasn’t until I started researching cannabis that I suddenly realized we are not free at all.  When the government dictates what your medical treatment is and is not instead of you and your doctor, when they take your freedom of choice away that is not freedom and we need to ask ourselves “How can we stand by and allow it to happen?”  We as citizens need to come together and demand our freedom back.  It seems a little comical, if not for all the appalling tragedies, that we are fighting for our right to use a natural plant, one that has been used safely throughout the world for thousands of years.

I will probably never be like my grandfather rattling off names like baseball stats but I have learned to pay better attention to whats going on around me.  Financial crisis, unrest among the people in countries all over the world, everyday living prices soaring, budget cuts are everywhere and raids and arrests for simple possession of a plant are abundant.  2012 is a year to pay attention and get involved.  This year we could seize the opportunity to educate others and push for legalization and an end to this failed, immoral and unconstitutional War on Drugs.  it is time we take back our choice, our freedom, our government!  Contact your Representative or the White House and tell them its time for a real change.  Spread the word Legalization is on the horizon!

Breaking News: Cashy Hyde Free From Cancer

The Cashy Hyde case has been one that has been closely followed by many in the cannabis community that believe in the healing power of cannabis.  Below is the breaking news released yesterday.

On Wednesday, February 22, 2012 Cash Michael Hyde was in Salt Lake City for a follow up MRI to check the status of his brain tumor. A PNET brain tumor he has been battling for almost 2 years.

For the second time in a row, Cashy has beat his tumor, and is in remission.

The Boy of Steel is Cancer Free!

How many people do you know that beat cancer once, nonetheless twice?

At THREE years of age?

Congratulations and hugest of blessing upon his parents Mike and Kalli for being the strong parents they are, and fighting so diligently to save their son’s life with an alternative option.

Thank heavens for the cannabis oil that saves Cashy’s life.

Be vigilant in your duties Pioneers……your efforts are important to people just like Cashy and his family EVERY day! Act responsibly! Keep up the great work!

And to all the politicians out there…….please support the Hyde family, and many other families out there just like them.

We are here to save children’s lives, not take them away.

Love and blessings to all…..I’m off to celebrate on the ride back to Montana with the Hyde’s.

I love them all so very much. Better be a BIG box of Kleenex on board as we will all be so HAPPY!

For more information please view original source or visit The Cash Hyde Foundation.

Children’s Cancer and Cannabis

The words children and cannabis sound very uncomfortable to many but to parents who want to see their child thrive, for some, it sounds like a prayer answered.  It is a very controversial subject but a very important one to discuss.  In the United States over 10,000 children under the age of 15 are diagnosed with cancer each year.  One of the most famous cases of a child with cancer being treated with cannabis is Cashy Hyde.  Many know the story of how the frail little boy bounced back with the help of Rick Simpson Oil.  Below you will see studies on how cannabis has been looked at for childhood cancers.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth! ~ Cherry Girl

An Efficient New Cannabinoid Antiemetic in Pediatric Oncology
An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology…Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC), a cannabinoid with lower psychotropic potency than the main Cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), was administered to eight children, aged 3-13 years with various hematologic cancers, treated with different antineoplastic drugs… The THC treatment started two hours before each antineoplastic treatment… Vomiting was completely prevented.

Cannabis-Induced Cytotoxicity in Leukemic Cell Lines: The Role of the Cannabinoid Receptors and the MAPK Pathway
Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active metabolite of cannabis… We investigated the role of the CB-Rs (cannabinoid receptors) in mediating apoptosis (cell death) in 3 leukemic cell lines… We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis (cell death/cell suicide)…Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway.

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of P22phox and Nox4 Expression
2006: “Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis (cell death) in human leukemia cells… results from this study reveal that cannabidiol, acting through CB2 and regulation of Nox4 and p22(phox) expression, may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.”— I believe cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid from cannabis.

The CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Signals Apoptosis Via Ceramide-Dependent Activation of the Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway
2006: “Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor… the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive. Here we used the human leukemia cell line Jurkat-that expresses CB2 as the unique CB receptor-to investigate this mechanism…results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis (cell death).

Medical Marijuana: Should Minors Have the Same Rights As Adults?
“Failure to give an effective therapy to seriously ill patients, either adults or children, violates the core principles of both medicine and ethics. Medically, to deny physicians the right to prescribe to their patients a therapy that relieves pain and suffering violates the physician-patient relationship. Ethically, failure to offer an available therapy that has proven to be effective violates the basic ethical principle of nonmaleficence, which prohibits the infliction of harm, injury, or death and is related to the maxim primum non nocere (‘above all, or first, do no harm’)… Therefore, in the patient’s best interest, patients and parents/surrogates, have the right to request medical marijuana under certain circumstances and physicians have the duty to disclose medical marijuana as an option and prescribe it when appropriate. The right to an effective medical therapy, whose benefits clearly outweigh the burdens, must be available to all patients including children. To deny children the use of medical marijuana when appropriate is a grave injustice which violates the basic foundational beliefs of both medicine and… ” — ethics?