It Is Time To Get Serious, It is Time To Talk Legalization

It is a difficult subject to discuss without getting a little fired up and at the same time heartbroken.  Cannabis legalization either for medical use only or for adults 21 years and older seems to be in the same category as discussing the latest pop news.  Nonchalantly, with a laugh and without much regard.  It seems that every time the subject of medical cannabis comes up it is either ignored or discussed with a laugh.  With high numbers of support and more states lined up to join the 17 states that have already approved medical cannabis legislation this subject will need to be seriously discussed.

While some have the luxury of getting stoned for the hell of it millions depend on cannabis for serious medical issues.  Many of them wish they could only use cannabis for recreation instead of the necessity with which they find themselves.  Yes cannabis can be a lot of fun to use recreationally.  Yes it can be fun to eat pizza and zone out on the couch with friends.  For those losing their livelihood, their children, their freedom or their life I am sure they have a much different outlook.

What about the cancer patient in pain?  The one who is looking death in the face and decides to take a chance with cannabis treatments to ease the pain, nausea and other horrific side effects.  The patient who uses a state legal dispensary to safely access  trusted raw cannabis or cannabis infused products.  The patient who uses the concentrated RSO oil that not only helps with the side effects but actually helps fight the cancer including inducing cancer cell death.  Is it still funny when that patients house is raided, when they are terrorized in their own home, when they are taken to jail?  Is it funny that we are keeping a PLANT from citizens who have gone through the state approved process to obtain state legal medication that not only helps cancer but hundreds of other medical issues as well?

What about the hardworking top student who gets drug tested or is caught with a small amount and loses their scholarship or funding?  What about the employee who otherwise is known as a perfect employee but comes up positive on a drug test?   There is too much known evidence to date that beyond proves cannabis has medical value.  Every week new studies are published attesting to that fact.  Should the federal government really be dictating to the states how to run a state program?  Should we still take such a hard stance against a versatile natural plant that not only helps millions but is already being used by a large percentage of the country?

We are allowed to vote, drive, consume alcohol, raise children, build large corporations and many other highly responsible activities and responsibilities so why are we not allowed to choose how to treat our illnesses or relax at the end of the day?  Why are we not allowed to choose natural cannabis instead of the more harmful choice alcohol?

Cannabis effects us not only socially but financially as well.  The cannabis related industry has grown during the recession.  We would save billions in wasted efforts trying to stifle a growing industry.  We would save lives and instead allow tax revenue and other positive residual effects to spread throughout the communities.  

We have to take a serious look at this subject and come to the table as adults.  Its time to put away the pizza, quit the giggles and other tired cliches.  This effects everyone from children losing their parents to the loved one with an illness prosecuted for using a natural herb used for thousands of years.  If we are truly free adults then we should be able to discuss this in a serious manner.  I urge all of you to speak up and let your representatives know it is time to seriously talk about cannabis legalization.

Cannabis Less Harmful Than Current Drug Therapies?

Many when faced with a serious illness fight for their life but ironically are prescribed medications that in fact not only cause harm but also are capable of taking their life.  Many prescription side effects are quite lengthy.  Those that are on prescriptions long-term end up requiring even more medication down the line to combat the side effects from the first drug.  With all that in mind patients are looking for a safer alternative solution.

From cancers to anxiety many prescribed therapies are not only dangerous but can cause death.  Chemotherapy has come a long way from the early days but it is still a drug that ravages the body.  By contrast research has shown that cannabinoid therapies induce programmed cell death in cancerous cells.  Cannabinoids as is widely known are praised for their ability to alleviate without any reported deaths throughout its historic, several thousand year use.

Although the official stance from the government is that cannabis has no accepted medical value science tells us otherwise.  Below you will see a study that weighs the harm of accepted drug therapies such as opioids.  As always I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Prescribing Cannabis For Harm Reduction 2012
Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.

U.S. Government Destroying History: Why We Must Save Cannabis Plant Genetics From Extinction

Strains such as Kush have been made notorious through songs and celebrities professing their love for the strain.  Those that have experienced Kush know why it is so famous.  From Tahoe OG Kush to Afghan Kush the high is memorable.  Cannabis is not a new plant created in a lab but rather has been used for centuries as medicine, religious herb and for recreation.  Research proves more every day how vital plant genetics are in finding the right compounds to combat illnesses and find cures.  Genetics is something that isn’t often thought of when discussing the War on Drugs but it has definitely been affected by it.

Some cannabis genetics are thought to have come from Providences in China and spread throughout the Silk Road while others originate in the Middle East.  There of course was the large movement through the 60s and 70s that helped spread and create new cannabis strains through people exchanging seeds and ganja.

With new genetics infiltrating the gene pool in the States new plant strains emerged.  Hybrids also came out of the mix.  People discovered that by crossing different strains they could breed out the undesirable traits while promoting higher potency and better growth stamina.  By cross breeding not only Indica with Indica but breeding for balance we have seen hybrid strains that have the pain relief of an Indica but with the “upper” functioning high of a Sativa.  Genetics play a role in growth, mold/pest resistance and of course potency.  

Blueberry strains are known for their social anxiety and pain relief as well as helping with digestive disorders and have spawned notorious strains like Blue Cheese, Blue Dream, Old-Time Moonshine and Blue Haze .  DJ Short created the Blueberry strain by crossing his Afghani Indica, brought by some growers from California and his Purple Thai.  The female pedigree of his Purple Thai is his highly potent all-around champion, “Juicy Fruit” Highland Thai female. It packed a very sweet tropical punch and an intense high that lasted for many hours. The second plant was a Purple Thai out of Oregon, Ohio. This plant was a cross between an outstanding Highland Oaxaca Gold and a very freaky Chocolate Thai. The hybrid was very dark colored and would express a deep royal purple color at the slightest exposure to cold. The finished product was equally tasty and strong as the Juicy Fruit female.

The War on Drugs forced cannabis use underground.  Cannabis began being bred for bag appeal and what would bring the best sales.  Growers began looking for traits that would bring the biggest yield with the shortest flowering time.  Medicinal qualities were disregarded.    For decades it was thought that the compound THC was responsible for all of the effects cannabis provided.  We now know of CBD which is actually responsible for pain relief and has been found to help with insomnia, anxiety and Alzheimer’s.  CBD was another casualty of the war with most of today’s strains registering less than 0.5%.  With the War on Drugs ongoing for over 40 years countless plants have been destroyed with the government’s actions forever destroying precious genetics.

Although cannabis has been around for thousands of years it wasn’t until the summer of 2011 that the genetics of the cannabis Sativa and Indica were mapped.  We know that there are hundreds of strains that have come from the original heirloom landraces.  Today many patients and citizens alike have the option of what type of relief or high they are looking for.  From the euphoric highs of the Sativa to the amazing pain relief that Indicas bring the options are endless.

Everyday we have new research that is released that shows the anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids.  Now more than ever we understand why we need to preserve the genetics of all cannabis plants.  We know that we can use different strains to treat a wide range of illnesses and afflictions.  We also know that cannabis is not a one-size-fits-all type of plant.  You need to have the correct strain containing the right balance of compounds to reach the desired effects.

We have more proof than we have ever had before showing the medical benefits even on a molecular level.  We are beyond smoke when taking about cannabis therapies.  There are a wide range of options when talking about uses.  Tinctures, edibles, concentrates, oils, topical lotion, capsules, vaporizers and more.

Support is at an historic high with medical use over 75% and legalization for adults over 21 at 50%.  States that have enacted decriminalization have found favorable outcomes.  States that have enacted medical statues have found large increases in tax income as well as economic growth in the communities.

If cannabis is allowed to thrive imagine the possibilities.  Imagine 5, 10, 15 years from now how much we will know about genetics, compounds and treatments for cancers.  Imagine all the possibilities if we could openly and safely exchange genetics and end products.  How many people could find relief?  How many could save their life?

It is time that we stand up and protect cannabis genetics.  We need to stop the violent raids by government officials.  The government needs to change their stance on cannabis therapies.  Now more than ever it is time we stop the continual attacks on patients, crops and our heritage.  The War on Drugs needs to end.  It has been a failed war for over 40 years that has forever changed the history of cannabis.  Those that have kept cannabis genetics alive even in the face of persecution and imprisonment thus passing down history should be celebrated.  Urge your representative today to show support for ending the failed approach to dealing with cannabis.

Ganja For Your Guts: How Cannabis Can Help IBS

No one likes dealing with an upset stomach from taco night.  Those with Irritable Bowel Syndrome or IBS deal with those symptoms and more on a frequent basis.  It is estimated that 20% of the U.S. population has IBS.  It is no wonder then why scientists would be hard at work looking for a cure.  We are seeing more and more research targeting the human Endocannabinoid system to treat illnesses.  IBS is no exception.  Below you will see studies where science has researched the role of the Endocannabinoid system with IBS and how cannabis therapy could help patients.  As always I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Activation of cannabinoid (CB)(1) and CB(2) receptors under various circumstances reduces motility, limits secretion and decreases hypersensitivity in the gut. Drugs that alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the gut also reduce motility and attenuate inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of the endocannabinoid system in gastrointestinal physiology. We go on to consider the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the context of symptoms associated with IBS and a possible role of this system in the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can This Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis In Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?
THC modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission via NMDA receptors. Fibromyalgia is now conceived as a central sensitization state with secondary hyperalgesia. Cannabinoids have similarly demonstrated the ability to block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, fibromyalgia, IBS and related disorders. The past and potential clinical utility of cannabis-based medicines in their treatment is discussed, as are further suggestions for experimental investigation of CECD via CSF examination and neuro-imaging.

Cannabinoids For Gastrointestinal Diseases: Potential Therapeutic Applications
A pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system could provide new therapeutics for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, including nausea and vomiting, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, secretory diarrhoea, paralytic ileus and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some cannabinoids are already in use clinically, for example, nabilone and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol are used as antiemetics.

Cannabinoids and Gastrointestinal Motility: Animal and Human Studies
Activation of prejunctional CB1 receptors reduces excitatory enteric transmission (mainly cholinergic transmission) in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal transit in rodents through activation of CB1, but not CB2, receptors. However, in pathophysiological states, both CB1 and CB2 receptors could reduce the increase of intestinal motility induced by inflammatory stimuli. Cannabinoids also reduce gastrointestinal motility in randomized clinical trials. Overall, modulation of the gut endogenous cannabinoid system may provide a useful therapeutic target for disorders of gastrointestinal motility.

Alternative Targets Within the Endocannabinoid System for Future Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases
Of major therapeutic interest are nonpsychoactive cannabinoids or compounds that do not directly target cannabinoid receptors but still possess cannabinoid-like properties. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids are becoming increasingly promising alternative therapeutic tools to manipulate the ECS.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Dysfunction of the Endocannabinoid System?

Cannabis, Cancer And Children:Why We Must Give Parents A Choice

There is something special about children that brings a smile.  Some parents wait a long time to be able to have that special time to cradle their child, gazing into their eyes.  Imagine being the parents faced with the reality that your child has cancer.  For over 10,000 parents each year that is the case.  Vigilantly staying by their child’s side through countless shots, painful procedures, body wrenching medications and worst of all watching as their child withers away before their eyes.  The spark slowly going out leaving behind a weak body.  Most would try anything to save their baby.  

Current therapies  such as chemotherapy are not precise measures.  Rates of success in comparisson with side effects make some wonder why alternatives are being stifled.    In contrast there is mounting evidence of the anti-tumor effects of cannabis compounds.  Cannabis has been praised for its large window of error since cannabis does not cause death.

Most in the cannabis community know who Cashy Hyde is.  He is the little boy who’s father treated him with cannabis oil and who today is cancer free.  Cashy has undergone extensive treatments that ravaged his tiny body.  His father watched as the light faded and decided to save his son.  He fed Cashy Rick Simpson Method Cannabis Oil through his feeding tube and miraculously watched his son bounce back to life.  Within days they noticed a difference.

Cashy is not alone.  There are millions of others that have been helped and cured with cannabis.  The discussion of cannabis is beyond smoke.  Cannabis research has shown that by targeting the Endocannabinoid system with the right combinations of compounds you will receive the desired effects including inducing cell death in cancer.

With so much more scientific medical research as proof the majority of the country is asking why we still pursue prohibition with a vengeance.  California has been helping patients since 1996.  Last year we saw a flood of stories where federal agencies terrorized local communities with their SWAT style raids.  In doing so they cut off supply of much needed medicine for patients just like Cashy.

We must do something to give parents an option to save their children.  When parents are told there is nothing more that can be done should we really take away hope.  Should we incarcerate parents for possessing a plant, one that science proves is lifesaving?  We need to bring sanity back into the equation.  We must change the laws.  Me must challenge the “way its always been”.  It is time to allow parents the right to decide for their children.  Several states have proposed or pending legislation.  Contact your state representatives and urge them to help change the future for our children.

Newly Released Studies Show Protection and Regeneration of Brain Cells with Cannabis Therapies

There are over 1.7 million cases of severe brain injury that are reported each year.  These injuries can be life altering for many but thanks to the hard work from the science and medical communities we are learning more about new treatment options.  Cannabis has been discovered to help with cell regeneration and repair in the brain.  Below you will see newly published studies where  cannabis has been applied to help with brain injuries. Truly exciting!!   As always I encourage all to do their own research as well and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Early Survival of Comatose Patients After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury With the Dual Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist KN38-7271
Despite many drug trials, no substance has yet been identified that improves the outcome of severe head injury. The dual cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist KN38-7271 mediates potent neuroprotection in animal models. We describe here the first randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical phase IIa proof-of-concept trial to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and potential efficacy of a cannabinoid receptor agonist in humans.  Conclusions KN38-7271 appeared beneficial in the acute early phase of the comatose patient after a head injury. Its use was safe and well tolerated by patients.

Cannabinoids As Neuroprotective Agents In Traumatic Brain Injury
Cannabinoids of all classes have the ability to protect neurons from a variety of insults that are believed to underlie delayed neuronal death after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including excitotoxicity, calcium influx, free radical formation and neuroinflammation.

Cannabidiol Administration After Hypoxia-Ischemia To Newborn Rats Reduces Long-Term Brain Injury and Restores Neurobehavioral Function 2012
Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI).   In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery.

Cannabidiol Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Functional Recovery After Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia In Newborn Pigs 2011
Newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) received i.v. cannabidiol (HI + CBD) or vehicle (HI + VEH). In HI + VEH, 72 h post-HI brain activity as assessed by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) had only recovered to 42 ± 9% of baseline, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters remained lower than normal, and neurobehavioral performance was abnormal (27.8 ± 2.3 points, normal 36).   In conclusion, post-HI administration of CBD protects neurons and astrocytes, leading to histological, functional, biochemical, and neurobehavioral improvements.
 

Cannabis Has Cancer In The Cross-Hairs. Utilizing The Endocannabinoid System To Kill Cancer

It seems that these days the word cancer is everywhere.  From billboards encouraging donations to charities to news headlines to loved one effected by cancer most people are familiar.  There are more than 200 different types of cancer that can develop in over 60 different organs in the body.  Current therapies include poisoning the body in hopes that it will also kill the cancer.  Cannabis is used to help counteract the side effects of these therapies.  However new research points to cannabis as the compounds that can actually cause cancer cell death, essentially curing cancer.  There are countless studies that have been published showing the benefits of using the endocannabinoid system to target cancer cells with cannabinoids.  From that research we have found where using the endocannabinoid system has proven vital in fighting cancer.  Below you will see several studies that show how using the endocannabinoid system can be used in targeting cancer.  Please feel free to share and help others see that using cannabis is beyond the smoke.  I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in Cancer-Potential Therapeutic Target?
Endogenous arachidonic acid metabolites with properties similar to compounds of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, the so-called endocannabinoids, have effects on various types of cancer.    Remarkably, these effects may be selective for the cancer cells, while normal cells and tissues are spared. Such apparent tumor cell selectivity makes the endocannabinoid system an attractive potential target for cancer therapy.

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System For the Treatment of Cancer–A Practical View
In recent years, considerable interest has been generated by findings that cannabinoids not only have useful palliative effects, but also can affect the viability and invasivity of a variety of different cancer cells.   It is concluded that cannabinoids (or agents modulating the endogenous cannabinoid system) are an attractive target for drug development in the cancer area….

The Endocannabinoid System As A Target For the Development of New Drugs For Cancer Therapy
Studies on the main bioactive components of Cannabis sativa, the cannabinoids, and particularly (THC), led to the discovery of a new endogenous signalling system that controls several physiological and pathological conditions: the endocannabinoid system. Recently, evidence has accumulated indicating that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors by either THC or the endocannabinoids influence the intracellular events controlling the proliferation and apoptosis(cell death) of numerous types of cancer cells, thereby leading to anti-tumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. This evidence is reviewed here and suggests that future anti-cancer therapy might be developed from our knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system controls the growth and metastasis of malignant cells.

Endocannabinoid System Modulation In Cancer Biology and Therapy
Endocannabinoid system modulation in cancer biology and therapy. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system… led to the development of therapeutic agents related to either the stimulation or antagonism of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors… evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors, which share the useful property to discern between tumor cells and their non-transformed counterparts, could represent novel tumor-selective tools to treat cancer in addition to their already exploited use as palliative drugs.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
“Use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer therapy as palliative and curative agents… Cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa)… development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Changes in the Endocannabinoid System May Give Insight into new and Effective Treatments for Cancer
Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for centuries… cannabinoids might be effective anti-tumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer… Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system may be dysregulated in a number of cancers… the endocannabinoid system exerts a myriad of effects on tumor cell growth, progression, angiogenesis, and migration. With a notable few exceptions, targeting the endocannabinoid system with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or increase the endogenous levels of AEA may prove to have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various cancers.

Save Your Ass, Smoke Some Grass

When people think of grass, weed, pot or cannabis they think of hippies and parties.  What most people don’t think about is that cannabis is showing real promise, on the molecular level, in fighting cancers.  People of all walks have been touched by cancer.  Most people know of someone, has had a loved one go through it or they themselves have experienced cancer.  It is no wonder then that science and medicine have been working hard to find a cure.  Cannabis research has been taking notice especially for its anti-cancer discoveries.   Over 140,000 new cases were reported for colon and rectal cancers with 51,000 reported deaths.  Below you will see studies where cannabis has been examined in the context of colorectal cancers.  As always please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Single Nucleotide Change in the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CNR1) Gene in Colorectal Cancer Outcome
The cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR-1) and endogenous agonists of this receptor are present in the central and peripheral nervous systems including the gastrointestinal nervous system.Indeed nontumor paired colorectal tissues showed nucleotide change. A large number of patients with mutation in the CNR1 gene were observed. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of further studies in the use of cannabinoid analogs as receptor ligands to analyze potential therapeutic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis(programmed cell death) through Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells
We show that the CB1 receptor was mainly expressed in human normal colonic epithelium whereas tumor tissue was strongly positive for the CB2 receptor.  The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF-α acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.

Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death At A Molecular Level
Balanced apoptosis is crucial in development and homeostasis, and all multicellular organisms have a physiologically programmed continuum of pathways to apoptotic cell death. Further studies of the control at the molecular level of key components and promoters/suppressors of apoptosis may provide better approaches to treatment of autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Many important questions remain regarding the advantages of modifying apoptotic programs in clinical situations.

Beyond The Smoke: The Anticancer Properties Of Cannabis

Cannabis has many amazing healing properties that utilize the endocannabinoid system to reach target areas.  Scientists use this knowledge to target certain aspects of a condition depending on the symptoms.  It is well known that cannabis use can help cancer patients during the course of their battle, from increased appetite to pain relief.  Scientists have been uncovering cannabis’ anticancer effects as well.  This promising research is clearing the way so that one day we will fully understand this miracle plant.  Below are studies where science has looked at cannabis therapy when applied to cancer cells.  Please feel free to share and as always I encourage all to do their own research.  Please note that a lot of these are NEW 2012 released research which is really exciting! ~ Cherry Girl

CANNABIDIOL AS POTENTIAL ANTICANCER DRUG
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumorigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors.

Non-THC Cannabinoids Counteract Prostate Carcinoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo: Pro-Apoptotic Effects and Underlying Mechanisms 2012
Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell…In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. Conclusions. These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma.

Role of Lipid Rafts/Caveolae in the Anticancer Effect of Endocannabinoids 2012
The endocannabinoid system comprises the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and the whole apparatus… drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system might be used to retard or block cancer growth… Perturbation of lipid rafts/caveolae may in fact represent a useful tool for the development of a novel therapy for endocannabinoids-related diseases, such as cancer.

Update On the Endocannabinoid System As An Anticancer Target
Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) could offer an attractive antitumor target.  One direction that should be pursued in antitumor therapy is to select compounds with reduced psychoactivity. This is known to be connected to the CB1 receptor; thus, targeting the CB2 receptor is a popular objective. CB1 receptors could be maintained as a target to design new compounds, and mixed CB1-CB2 ligands could be effective if they are able to not cross the BBB. Furthermore, targeting the ECS with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or inhibitors of endogenous degrading systems such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors may have relevant therapeutic impact on tumor growth. Additional studies into the downstream consequences of endocannabinoid treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors expressed by tumour cells may offer a novel strategy to treat cancer. In this chapter we review the more recent results generating interest in the field of cannabinoids and cancer, and provide novel suggestions for the development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Inhibitory Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Stimulation on Tumor Growth and Metastatic Spreading: Actions on Signals Involved in Angiogenesis and Metastasis
Stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors by 2-methyl-arachidonyl-2′-fluoro-ethylamide (Met-F-AEA) inhibits the growth of a rat thyroid cancer cell-derived tumor in athymic mice by inhibiting the activity of the oncogene product p21ras.  Three weeks from the paw injection of 3LL cells, Met-F-AEA reduced significantly the number of metastatic nodes, in a way antagonized by SR141716A. Our findings indicate that CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Good News For CB1 Receptors: Endogenous Agonists Are in the Right Place
Good news for CB1 receptors: endogenous agonists are in the right place” and “CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Cannabis: Your Heart Hero

More and more Americans are being classified as obese.  With obesity comes other complications such as cardiovascular disease.  Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease.  The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common.  It is estimated that one-third of Americans die from cardiovascular disease so it is no wonder that scientists have been hard at work trying to find a cure.   Below you will see studies where science has looked at cannabis compounds when applied to CVD.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor CB(2 ) in Cardiovascular Disorders: Promises and Controversies
“Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, which can be largely attributed to atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arteries… the lipid endocannabinoid system has emerged as a new therapeutic target in variety of disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main active constituent of marijuana, inhibited atherosclerotic plaque progression via a cannabinoid 2 (CB(2) ) receptor-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanism.

Endocannabinoid System in Cardiovascular Disorders – New Pharmacotherapeutic Opportunities
The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors) is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.

Never Fear Cannabis Is Here! How Cannabis Can Help With Fear, Anxiety, and Other Psychiatric Disorders

Nearly 19 million Americans suffer from a  psychiatric disorder which could include disorders such as specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.  Many veterans returning from war have found cannabis to be a relief from PTSD.  Below you will studies where science has studied the effects of cannabis compounds when applied to psychiatric disorders.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in the Processing of Anxiety and Fear and How CB1 Receptors May Modulate Fear Extinction 
The endocannabinoid system recently emerged as an important modulator of many neuronal functions. Among them, the control of anxiety and acquired fear represents nowadays one of the most interesting fields of research.  Finally, a neurobiological model possibly able to implement the role of the endocannabinoid system in these processes will be proposed.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity During Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice
Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory.  We propose that the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates extinction of aversive memories, at least in part via regulation of the activity of kinases and phosphatases in a brain structure-dependent manner.

Extinction of Emotional Response As A Novel Approach of Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders 
The patogenesis of anxiety may be related to the process of an extinction of aversive memories… Studies on molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for individual fear extinction may serve as the basis of search for more effective forms of clinical treatment… ligands stimulating endogenous cannabinoid system… these substances stimulate different central mechanisms, they appear to act synergistically, to improve the behavioural therapy.

Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear
the findings in the present study suggest that augmenting eCB-mediated neurotransmission by inhibition of eCB transport or breakdown may provide a novel mechanism for enhancing the extinction of fear. As such, eCB reuptake inhibitors may serve as useful adjuncts in the treatment of anxiety disorders (such as PTSD, panic disorder, and OCD) as well as drug addiction and other disorders that respond to behavioral treatments utilizing extinction processes.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Controls Extinction of Aversive Memories
Acquisition and storage of aversive memories is one of the basic principles of central nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of reinforcement, the resulting behavioural response will gradually diminish to be finally extinct.  We propose that endocannabinoids facilitate extinction of aversive memories through their selective inhibitory effects on local inhibitory networks in the amygdala.

The Endocannabinoid system and Extinction Learning
As several human psychiatric disorders, such as phobia, generalized anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to involve aberrant memory processing and impaired adaptation to changed environmental conditions, the hope has been fuelled that the endocannabinoid system might be a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of these disorders.

Bringing the War Back Home: Mental Health Disorders Among 103,788 US Veterans Returning From Iraq and Afghanistan Seen at Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities
Co-occurring mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were detected early and in primary care medical settings in a substantial proportion of OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA facilities. Targeted early detection and intervention beginning in primary care settings are needed to prevent chronic mental illness and disability.

Psychosis and Trauma. Theorical Links Between Post-Traumatic and Psychotic Symptoms
The links between psychotic and psycho-traumatic symptoms are complex and multidirectional; this co-occurrence is a factor of seriousness. The clinician, while paying attention to these symptoms, has to distinguish the structure of the personality of the subject to articulate the psychotherapy and the pharmacological treatment. Further investigational studies may determine whether antipsychotics will enhance treatment response in PTSD patients with psychotic features.

How Some Green Can Help The Blues

Americans across the nation are facing mounting pressure from the economy and many other challenges.  Many are also suffering with depression and mood disorders along with added pressures.  The average American who has tried cannabis well knows the mood elevating effects which include uncontrollable giggling or laughter.  Of course it is also dependent on the right strain but that is where science comes in.  Below you will see studies where scientists have discovered why our moods are altered as well as further the knowledge we have on the interactions of cannabis’ compounds and our bodies.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Dopamine and Cannabinoid Interaction in the Modulation of Emotions and Cognition: Assessing the Role of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Neurons Expressing Dopamine D1 Receptors
Although cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are densely expressed in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), it is not fully understood to what extent they modulate emotional behaviors…….These results provided first direct evidence for a cross-talk between dopaminergic D1Rs and endocannabinoid system in terms of controlling negative affect.

Effects of Cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid and Cannabidiol in MPP(+) Affected Murine Mesencephalic Cultures
Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties… Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities… our data show that cannabinoids THC and THCA protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+) induced cell death.” (Possibly due to the cross-talk between  the dopamine and cannabinoid systems as seen in the study above)

Antidepressant-like Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated From Cannabis
Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.

 

Cannabis Prohibition: Is It Really Keeping Our Children Safe?

Many a bored teen will hang out with friends and be faced with choosing to use drugs or not.  Many government officials as well as parents tout the War on Drugs as a savior to our children.  They say that it keeps the drugs out of the hands of minors, off the streets and out of schools.  With the economy shining a spotlight onto finances one can quickly see how big of a budget the War on Drugs consumes.  With taking all the different facets of this war into account some wonder if its really working.

The War on Drugs has been waging for over 40 years.  It has cost the tax-payers over $14 trillion, billions annually.  There have been surges and wanes over the 40 years in intensity in the pursuit to eradicate drug use.  Over the years we have witnessed many tragedies and successes.  We have seen harmful drug use drop among the population but especially minors.  We have also seen over the last 18 months an intensity like never before in the use of intimidation tactics, SWAT style raids against state legal patients, abuse, or lethal force when pursuing cannabis users.

With more education and information available to teens today many are able to see through the hypocrisy and lies.  Teens can see you are lying especially when they try cannabis, realize that it is not going to kill them and that they actually like the effects.  With alcohol, who’s effects are similar to cannabis but with much more harm at stake, not only available for sale but advertised everywhere including major sports events it is hard to see the difference.  When they see you are lying about cannabis they question other “truths” you have been telling them.

Simple cannabis possession or other non-violent cannabis related offenses can claim your driver’s license, student loans, subsidized housing, or federal grants.  It can jail a parent or guardian even if they are state and county legal.  With a parent jailed it costs tax-payers more to incarcerate and breaks up a family where the children are thrown into the broken foster care system.  All of us should be asking if this is really what is best for our children.

Children that go into the system cost tax-payers millions each year.  It costs the child emotionally and psychologically.   Children that grow up in the system are bounced around to different homes causing them to act out, perform poorly in school, drop out, get into legal trouble and end up repeating their parents mistakes.  Should we really treat cannabis related offenses this harshly?  Are these tactics really working?

Cannabis use was slightly higher this year but more harmful drugs, including alcohol, were reportedly down according to a recent study among teens use.  Those that take a quick look around or have a conversation with a teen will learn how easily drugs are accessible.  Each year D.E.A. officials boast of their catches but in reality they have barely scratched the surface.  Even with officials raiding and confiscating thousands of plants, California’s number one cash crop was still cannabis.  The plain truth is that it is a plant that can be grown in anyone’s home.  It can be kept from anyone’s knowledge provided the grower is smart.  It can be accessed through many avenues including access through children.

Drug cartels have taken notice of America’s love of drugs and has very outstretched networks that effect our children.  The violence and corruption that comes along with the cartels are infiltrating our schools.  The cartels lure children with money or threats using them as drug runners, smugglers or sellers.  They know that if children are caught the punishment is less.  The also know that it takes less money to impress children.  In this way they have been able to utilize children to sell to others including their peers thus spurring not only more drug use but recruiting even more children.

California has a heavily burdened prison and welfare system.  They have a large amount of incarcerated inmates for cannabis related crimes.  Our nation has been fighting this war for far too long.  Even our children see the truth about cannabis.  Isn’t it time we started talking about this subject from a new perspective?  Our law enforcement agencies have received cuts across the states including here in California.  Our streets are not safer.  Drug use has not been eradicated even after over 40 years.  Families are broken, children are effected, states are bankrupt and in the end drugs are still easily accessible at any school.  Isn’t it time we end the War on Drugs and start with a new approach?

The Human Prenatal Endocannabinoid System

Since the discovery of the human endocannabinoid system science has been busy trying to unlock the mysteries of this complex system.  Science has uncovered many interesting features of this system.  This includes the presence of this multi-function system in fetuses.   Below you will see studies on how science has uncovered in-dept knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in pre and post natal subjects.  I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

Multiple Roles For the Endocannabinoid System During the Earliest Stages Of Life: Pre- and Postnatal Development
The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), endogenous ligands (‘endocannabinoids’), synthesising and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development.  Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development…the endocannabinoid system appears to play an essential role for development and survival… the endocannabinoid system plays several key roles in pre- and postnatal development. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms involved… in order to design strategies for the treatment of conditions such as infertility, mental retardation and failure-to-thrive.

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance For Development and In Pediatric Disease
The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: Importance for development and in pediatric disease… it is suggested that children may respond positively to medicinal applications of cannabinoids without undesirable central effects. Excellent clinical results have previously been reported in pediatric oncology and in case studies of children with severe neurological disease or brain trauma. We suggest cannabinoid treatment for children or young adults with cystic fibrosis in order to achieve an improvement of their health condition including improved food intake and reduced inflammatory exacerbations.

On the Application of Cannabis In Paediatrics and Epileptology
An initial report on the therapeutic application of delta 9-THC (THC) (Dronabinol, Marinol) in 8 children resp. adolescents suffering from the following conditions, is given: neurodegenerative disease, mitochondriopathy, posthypoxic state, epilepsy, posttraumatic reaction. THC effected reduced spasticity, improved dystonia, increased initiative, increased interest in the surroundings, and anticonvulsive action…possibility that THC-induced effects on ion channels and transmitters may explain its therapeutic activity seen in epileptic patients.

The Endocannabinoid-CB(1) Receptor System In Pre- and Postnatal Life
The endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor system in pre- and postnatal life.. CB(1) receptors display a transient presence in white matter areas of the pre- and postnatal nervous system, suggesting a role for CB(1) receptors in brain development…Further observations suggest that children may be less prone to psychoactive side effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or endocannabinoids than adults. The medical implications of these novel developments are far reaching and suggest a promising future for cannabinoids in pediatric medicine for conditions including “non-organic failure-to-thrive” and cystic fibrosis.

Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation In Adulthood
The appetite-stimulating effects of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) have been known since ancient times, and appear to be effected through the incentive and rewarding properties of foods. Investigations into the biological basis of the multiple effects of cannabis have yielded important breakthroughs in recent years… exciting progress in the understanding of how the endocannabinoid CB receptor systems influence appetite and body weight is stimulating the development of therapeutic orexigenic and anorectic agents. Furthermore, the role of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation for milk suckling in newborns may open new doors toward understanding nonorganic failure-to-thrive in infants, who display growth failure without known organic cause.

Ontogenetic Development of Cannabinoid Receptor Expression and Signal Transduction Functionality in the Human Brain
Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail.   This early pattern of expression of functionally active cannabinoid receptors, along with the transient and atypical localization of these proteins in white matter areas during the prenatal stages, suggest an specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the events related to human neural development.

 

Dear Mr. President

I know this year is a very important year for you.  It is just as important for millions of Americans across the nation.  I write to ask you a question.  In an election year that many feel is vital we would like to know why the issue of cannabis has not been properly discussed?  I have read the releases from the administration but it fails to properly address our concerns.  The issue has been ignored at many venues where it was the leading question.

After 40 years of this War on Drugs where have we gotten and was it worth it?  In this economy many people are hurting and everyone is looking for ways to save money.  The War on Drugs cost taxpayers billions of dollars each year and is responsible for many tragic stories.

Not only has it cost us money but it has cost us as a society as well.  Millions of Americans have been shuffled through the judicial system destroying their lives many for simple possession.  This problem has also exposed racial divides and furthered the tension in the country.  People have lost faith in law enforcement in many cities.  In Mexico over 50,000 have died in the last 6 years directly resulting from this war.  The Cartels are getting richer and the demand is still there.

There is a sizable and growing group of supporters across the nation.  75% support medical use and the number for legalization for adults over 21 is rapidly growing.  In this economy where many are downsizing the cannabis industry is booming.  The states that have legalized cannabis have seen a sharp increase in revenue both in taxes and fees as well as residual income for local communities.  When properly regulated and implemented we have seen excellent examples shine through.

Consumers no longer want to go to the street corner dealer but instead enjoy the safety and security of dispensaries.  There patients can find natural, organic strain choices with professional help and options in consumption.  They can feel confident that they are paying taxes and contributing towards the community instead of the black market.

With legalization comes regulation which assists in restricting access to minors.  Today minors are restricted from buying and accessing alcohol on their own due to strict regulations.  We have seen the devastating effects that alcohol prohibition caused.  Since its repeal we have also seen the effects that it has had on this nation.  From responsible use to fatalities from car accidents, consumption and domestic violence alcohol has been responsible.  Today alcohol is advertised during major sporting events, radio, TV, movies billboards and more exposing children at a young age.

There is too much proof both in scientific studies and in testimonies to deny the many benefits of cannabis.   With the knowledge we have gained so far patients of all kinds have found relief with cannabis.  We have also seen miraculous cases such as Cash Hyde overcome childhood cancer.  We have come much further than smoking on a Friday night but rather uncovered just the surface of what looks to be exciting and promising discoveries.

With all these factors in mind our community is wondering why our our President and candidates, who are vying for the highest power in the country for the next four years  and who directly effect this issue, continue to ignore us?  We want to know why an issue that directly effects millions and indirectly effects us all would not be considered?

We are looking for a leader who is willing to stand up to the opposition and show people that legalization can be done responsibly with regulations and state approval.  We need a leader who will take us seriously and address our needs.  We are looking for that leader this year and it is for that reason it needs to be addressed.  Millions of voters are waiting it is time to address cannabis.

We Can Not Afford To Continue The War On Drugs

The Vice President visited with South American leaders but continued the hardened stance against drug legalization despite opposing opinions from the other side.  While the US government, in their fight against drugs, has proven its disregard for its own citizens they have also shown that they are willing to sacrifice over 50,000 Mexicans as well as thousands in other Latin countries, murdered, some decapitated and dumped in public streets.  By continuing this costly, bloody and utterly disastrous War on Drugs they have proven that they will stop at nothing to continue their agenda.    Over 40 years of continual war on drugs has cost this country dearly and many ask is it really worth it?

With all that is going on in the country today it’s no wonder that people start to ignore some issues and continue on with more pressing matters. But when taking a further look into the cannabis issue it has more to do with every day life than what appears at face value.  There are multiple layers to this complex issue.  Cannabis and the War on Drugs impacts the economy, citizen’s rights, society, families, the individual user and much more.  It impacts all of us in one way or another many without us realizing it.

With the economy in the shape that it’s currently in, budget cuts rampant, layoffs, department downsizing; cities across the country are having to prioritize and make cuts often deciding which cases are the most important and letting others slide including violent crimes.  With cuts to law enforcement cities across the nation see crimes rates rise and the value decrease which impacts us all.  Each year the government spends billions fighting the War on Drugs. That money could instead be used more wisely.  One wonders then with these limited resources why cannabis, a non lethal plant,  continues to top their priorities list despite saying the administration would do otherwise?

We have spent trillions of dollars fighting this War on Drugs and what we have ended with is a broken country both financially and socially.  The government has criminalized a natural plant and taken a hardened stance against it despite the growing support nationally for legalization especially for medical reasons.  The government has continued to deny any benefits of cannabis and still stands by its classification of it as a scheduled 1 substance along side such hard drugs as heroin and deemed harsher than cocaine.  The government needs to wake up and realize that this war is not worth the cost and needs to end.   That will happen when we come together and make our voices heard.  We need to take this issue to the forefront and make people, make the president, address it.

In the last three years we saw more attacks from the federal government during the Obama administration than those of Presidents Bush and Clinton.  We saw federal raids on legitimate patients and their caregivers.  We saw taxpayer’s money wasted fueling this war on citizens.  We saw the federal government trample all over our rights in its search for criminals, millions who’s only crime was simple possession.

The laws that were passed soon after the 9/11 attacks, that were thought to be used only for the protection against terrorists attacks, have continuously been used in the War against Drugs and American citizens.  The laws have been used more in the search for drugs than for terrorists.  We need to stand up for our rights and demand that use of a plant should not constitute giving up our constitutional rights.

Currently schools across the country are in need of funding and money spent on the War on Drugs could instead go to make our schools excellent again.  By having smart regulations, correct zoning in cities and responsible use, children will not be effected in the manner everyone fears.  Instead of an underground network of criminals you would have a respected cannabis community that is not selling your children drugs. 

The argument for denying legalization for the sake of children may at face value have merit but when looking closer is ridiculous.  Parents need to take a leading role in teaching their children about cannabis, responsibility for choices and the pros and cons of drug use.  This issue of children’s use of cannabis or not is not a government decision but a parental one.  Parents play a huge role in their child’s influences, view towards drugs, access and more.  They should be the one making that decision to restrict cannabis or drug use.

By keeping cannabis illegal you keep it from being regulated which means that the product is out there with no one saying who can and can not have it.  Which also means that the person selling it doesn’t necessarily care how old your kid is when they try to buy pot only if they have the right amount of cash.  Alcohol by contrast, which consequently can be fatal especially to children and teens, is legal, regulated and not readily accessible to children.  Those worried about dispensary signs keep in mind that alcohol is advertised during national sporting events, local radio, TV, movies, billboards and more, giving children much more exposure.

In states across the US there is pending legislation for cannabis use with some aiming to take control and address the obvious problems caused by the War on Drugs.  The state of Washington has a great set up already in place for alcohol which would nicely accommodate the cannabis industry as well.  The citizens have gotten the necessary signatures validated for a legalization initiative for adults 21 and older to consume cannabis to appear before the voters in the November 2012 ballots. This has a great potential for a positive financial impact on the local and state economy allowing for more income, a much-needed relief especially in these times.

With all the facts stacking up against the War on Drugs and the hardened stance against legalization you have to ask yourself why are we continuing this costly war?  We need to address this issue and demand and end to this war.  We must urge our representatives to support rescheduling cannabis and repealing the devastating effects of prohibition.  The fight for legalization has been a long one but with quick action we can take hold of this opportunity and finally achieve our goals.

This guy can afford the War on Drugs (head of Sinola cartel)

Corruption Through the Ages

It is said that if history is not learned it is doomed to repeat itself.  It is important to look back and know how we got here today.  We have looked at how Prohibition of Alcohol can be applied to today’s War on Drugs.  We have also looked at the current Drug War in terms of stats on arrests and how much money is wasted.  Now we will take a look at how the Banking System has played a role in the drug trade and the War on Drugs. If you study the timeline below you will see how corruption has a firm grip where ever there is money. In the past 10 years there has been major corruption linking the banking system and drug cartels.  This is just one key point in the War on Drugs and our fight for legalization.  Money does have control and it is vital to know all aspects when fighting for legalization.  In the timeline you will notice underline text.  These are areas that I encourage to be further researched as there is a lot of interesting history to be discovered.  Please Share: just click on the image below to read~ Cherry Girl

Also available in High Resolution

Adapted from “Banking Laid Bare” Steven Hager ~ High Times Dec 2011

Wachovia and J.P. Morgan connection to Slave Trade: http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/news/ww061005.htm