U.S. Government Destroying History: Why We Must Save Cannabis Plant Genetics From Extinction

Strains such as Kush have been made notorious through songs and celebrities professing their love for the strain.  Those that have experienced Kush know why it is so famous.  From Tahoe OG Kush to Afghan Kush the high is memorable.  Cannabis is not a new plant created in a lab but rather has been used for centuries as medicine, religious herb and for recreation.  Research proves more every day how vital plant genetics are in finding the right compounds to combat illnesses and find cures.  Genetics is something that isn’t often thought of when discussing the War on Drugs but it has definitely been affected by it.

Some cannabis genetics are thought to have come from Providences in China and spread throughout the Silk Road while others originate in the Middle East.  There of course was the large movement through the 60s and 70s that helped spread and create new cannabis strains through people exchanging seeds and ganja.

With new genetics infiltrating the gene pool in the States new plant strains emerged.  Hybrids also came out of the mix.  People discovered that by crossing different strains they could breed out the undesirable traits while promoting higher potency and better growth stamina.  By cross breeding not only Indica with Indica but breeding for balance we have seen hybrid strains that have the pain relief of an Indica but with the “upper” functioning high of a Sativa.  Genetics play a role in growth, mold/pest resistance and of course potency.  

Blueberry strains are known for their social anxiety and pain relief as well as helping with digestive disorders and have spawned notorious strains like Blue Cheese, Blue Dream, Old-Time Moonshine and Blue Haze .  DJ Short created the Blueberry strain by crossing his Afghani Indica, brought by some growers from California and his Purple Thai.  The female pedigree of his Purple Thai is his highly potent all-around champion, “Juicy Fruit” Highland Thai female. It packed a very sweet tropical punch and an intense high that lasted for many hours. The second plant was a Purple Thai out of Oregon, Ohio. This plant was a cross between an outstanding Highland Oaxaca Gold and a very freaky Chocolate Thai. The hybrid was very dark colored and would express a deep royal purple color at the slightest exposure to cold. The finished product was equally tasty and strong as the Juicy Fruit female.

The War on Drugs forced cannabis use underground.  Cannabis began being bred for bag appeal and what would bring the best sales.  Growers began looking for traits that would bring the biggest yield with the shortest flowering time.  Medicinal qualities were disregarded.    For decades it was thought that the compound THC was responsible for all of the effects cannabis provided.  We now know of CBD which is actually responsible for pain relief and has been found to help with insomnia, anxiety and Alzheimer’s.  CBD was another casualty of the war with most of today’s strains registering less than 0.5%.  With the War on Drugs ongoing for over 40 years countless plants have been destroyed with the government’s actions forever destroying precious genetics.

Although cannabis has been around for thousands of years it wasn’t until the summer of 2011 that the genetics of the cannabis Sativa and Indica were mapped.  We know that there are hundreds of strains that have come from the original heirloom landraces.  Today many patients and citizens alike have the option of what type of relief or high they are looking for.  From the euphoric highs of the Sativa to the amazing pain relief that Indicas bring the options are endless.

Everyday we have new research that is released that shows the anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids.  Now more than ever we understand why we need to preserve the genetics of all cannabis plants.  We know that we can use different strains to treat a wide range of illnesses and afflictions.  We also know that cannabis is not a one-size-fits-all type of plant.  You need to have the correct strain containing the right balance of compounds to reach the desired effects.

We have more proof than we have ever had before showing the medical benefits even on a molecular level.  We are beyond smoke when taking about cannabis therapies.  There are a wide range of options when talking about uses.  Tinctures, edibles, concentrates, oils, topical lotion, capsules, vaporizers and more.

Support is at an historic high with medical use over 75% and legalization for adults over 21 at 50%.  States that have enacted decriminalization have found favorable outcomes.  States that have enacted medical statues have found large increases in tax income as well as economic growth in the communities.

If cannabis is allowed to thrive imagine the possibilities.  Imagine 5, 10, 15 years from now how much we will know about genetics, compounds and treatments for cancers.  Imagine all the possibilities if we could openly and safely exchange genetics and end products.  How many people could find relief?  How many could save their life?

It is time that we stand up and protect cannabis genetics.  We need to stop the violent raids by government officials.  The government needs to change their stance on cannabis therapies.  Now more than ever it is time we stop the continual attacks on patients, crops and our heritage.  The War on Drugs needs to end.  It has been a failed war for over 40 years that has forever changed the history of cannabis.  Those that have kept cannabis genetics alive even in the face of persecution and imprisonment thus passing down history should be celebrated.  Urge your representative today to show support for ending the failed approach to dealing with cannabis.

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Ganja For Your Guts: How Cannabis Can Help IBS

No one likes dealing with an upset stomach from taco night.  Those with Irritable Bowel Syndrome or IBS deal with those symptoms and more on a frequent basis.  It is estimated that 20% of the U.S. population has IBS.  It is no wonder then why scientists would be hard at work looking for a cure.  We are seeing more and more research targeting the human Endocannabinoid system to treat illnesses.  IBS is no exception.  Below you will see studies where science has researched the role of the Endocannabinoid system with IBS and how cannabis therapy could help patients.  As always I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Activation of cannabinoid (CB)(1) and CB(2) receptors under various circumstances reduces motility, limits secretion and decreases hypersensitivity in the gut. Drugs that alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the gut also reduce motility and attenuate inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of the endocannabinoid system in gastrointestinal physiology. We go on to consider the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the context of symptoms associated with IBS and a possible role of this system in the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can This Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis In Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?
THC modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission via NMDA receptors. Fibromyalgia is now conceived as a central sensitization state with secondary hyperalgesia. Cannabinoids have similarly demonstrated the ability to block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, fibromyalgia, IBS and related disorders. The past and potential clinical utility of cannabis-based medicines in their treatment is discussed, as are further suggestions for experimental investigation of CECD via CSF examination and neuro-imaging.

Cannabinoids For Gastrointestinal Diseases: Potential Therapeutic Applications
A pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system could provide new therapeutics for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, including nausea and vomiting, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, secretory diarrhoea, paralytic ileus and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some cannabinoids are already in use clinically, for example, nabilone and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol are used as antiemetics.

Cannabinoids and Gastrointestinal Motility: Animal and Human Studies
Activation of prejunctional CB1 receptors reduces excitatory enteric transmission (mainly cholinergic transmission) in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal transit in rodents through activation of CB1, but not CB2, receptors. However, in pathophysiological states, both CB1 and CB2 receptors could reduce the increase of intestinal motility induced by inflammatory stimuli. Cannabinoids also reduce gastrointestinal motility in randomized clinical trials. Overall, modulation of the gut endogenous cannabinoid system may provide a useful therapeutic target for disorders of gastrointestinal motility.

Alternative Targets Within the Endocannabinoid System for Future Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases
Of major therapeutic interest are nonpsychoactive cannabinoids or compounds that do not directly target cannabinoid receptors but still possess cannabinoid-like properties. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids are becoming increasingly promising alternative therapeutic tools to manipulate the ECS.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Dysfunction of the Endocannabinoid System?

Cannabis, Cancer And Children:Why We Must Give Parents A Choice

There is something special about children that brings a smile.  Some parents wait a long time to be able to have that special time to cradle their child, gazing into their eyes.  Imagine being the parents faced with the reality that your child has cancer.  For over 10,000 parents each year that is the case.  Vigilantly staying by their child’s side through countless shots, painful procedures, body wrenching medications and worst of all watching as their child withers away before their eyes.  The spark slowly going out leaving behind a weak body.  Most would try anything to save their baby.  

Current therapies  such as chemotherapy are not precise measures.  Rates of success in comparisson with side effects make some wonder why alternatives are being stifled.    In contrast there is mounting evidence of the anti-tumor effects of cannabis compounds.  Cannabis has been praised for its large window of error since cannabis does not cause death.

Most in the cannabis community know who Cashy Hyde is.  He is the little boy who’s father treated him with cannabis oil and who today is cancer free.  Cashy has undergone extensive treatments that ravaged his tiny body.  His father watched as the light faded and decided to save his son.  He fed Cashy Rick Simpson Method Cannabis Oil through his feeding tube and miraculously watched his son bounce back to life.  Within days they noticed a difference.

Cashy is not alone.  There are millions of others that have been helped and cured with cannabis.  The discussion of cannabis is beyond smoke.  Cannabis research has shown that by targeting the Endocannabinoid system with the right combinations of compounds you will receive the desired effects including inducing cell death in cancer.

With so much more scientific medical research as proof the majority of the country is asking why we still pursue prohibition with a vengeance.  California has been helping patients since 1996.  Last year we saw a flood of stories where federal agencies terrorized local communities with their SWAT style raids.  In doing so they cut off supply of much needed medicine for patients just like Cashy.

We must do something to give parents an option to save their children.  When parents are told there is nothing more that can be done should we really take away hope.  Should we incarcerate parents for possessing a plant, one that science proves is lifesaving?  We need to bring sanity back into the equation.  We must change the laws.  Me must challenge the “way its always been”.  It is time to allow parents the right to decide for their children.  Several states have proposed or pending legislation.  Contact your state representatives and urge them to help change the future for our children.

Newly Released Studies Show Protection and Regeneration of Brain Cells with Cannabis Therapies

There are over 1.7 million cases of severe brain injury that are reported each year.  These injuries can be life altering for many but thanks to the hard work from the science and medical communities we are learning more about new treatment options.  Cannabis has been discovered to help with cell regeneration and repair in the brain.  Below you will see newly published studies where  cannabis has been applied to help with brain injuries. Truly exciting!!   As always I encourage all to do their own research as well and please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Early Survival of Comatose Patients After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury With the Dual Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist KN38-7271
Despite many drug trials, no substance has yet been identified that improves the outcome of severe head injury. The dual cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist KN38-7271 mediates potent neuroprotection in animal models. We describe here the first randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical phase IIa proof-of-concept trial to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and potential efficacy of a cannabinoid receptor agonist in humans.  Conclusions KN38-7271 appeared beneficial in the acute early phase of the comatose patient after a head injury. Its use was safe and well tolerated by patients.

Cannabinoids As Neuroprotective Agents In Traumatic Brain Injury
Cannabinoids of all classes have the ability to protect neurons from a variety of insults that are believed to underlie delayed neuronal death after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including excitotoxicity, calcium influx, free radical formation and neuroinflammation.

Cannabidiol Administration After Hypoxia-Ischemia To Newborn Rats Reduces Long-Term Brain Injury and Restores Neurobehavioral Function 2012
Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI).   In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery.

Cannabidiol Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Functional Recovery After Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia In Newborn Pigs 2011
Newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) received i.v. cannabidiol (HI + CBD) or vehicle (HI + VEH). In HI + VEH, 72 h post-HI brain activity as assessed by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) had only recovered to 42 ± 9% of baseline, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters remained lower than normal, and neurobehavioral performance was abnormal (27.8 ± 2.3 points, normal 36).   In conclusion, post-HI administration of CBD protects neurons and astrocytes, leading to histological, functional, biochemical, and neurobehavioral improvements.
 

Cannabis Has Cancer In The Cross-Hairs. Utilizing The Endocannabinoid System To Kill Cancer

It seems that these days the word cancer is everywhere.  From billboards encouraging donations to charities to news headlines to loved one effected by cancer most people are familiar.  There are more than 200 different types of cancer that can develop in over 60 different organs in the body.  Current therapies include poisoning the body in hopes that it will also kill the cancer.  Cannabis is used to help counteract the side effects of these therapies.  However new research points to cannabis as the compounds that can actually cause cancer cell death, essentially curing cancer.  There are countless studies that have been published showing the benefits of using the endocannabinoid system to target cancer cells with cannabinoids.  From that research we have found where using the endocannabinoid system has proven vital in fighting cancer.  Below you will see several studies that show how using the endocannabinoid system can be used in targeting cancer.  Please feel free to share and help others see that using cannabis is beyond the smoke.  I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in Cancer-Potential Therapeutic Target?
Endogenous arachidonic acid metabolites with properties similar to compounds of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, the so-called endocannabinoids, have effects on various types of cancer.    Remarkably, these effects may be selective for the cancer cells, while normal cells and tissues are spared. Such apparent tumor cell selectivity makes the endocannabinoid system an attractive potential target for cancer therapy.

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System For the Treatment of Cancer–A Practical View
In recent years, considerable interest has been generated by findings that cannabinoids not only have useful palliative effects, but also can affect the viability and invasivity of a variety of different cancer cells.   It is concluded that cannabinoids (or agents modulating the endogenous cannabinoid system) are an attractive target for drug development in the cancer area….

The Endocannabinoid System As A Target For the Development of New Drugs For Cancer Therapy
Studies on the main bioactive components of Cannabis sativa, the cannabinoids, and particularly (THC), led to the discovery of a new endogenous signalling system that controls several physiological and pathological conditions: the endocannabinoid system. Recently, evidence has accumulated indicating that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors by either THC or the endocannabinoids influence the intracellular events controlling the proliferation and apoptosis(cell death) of numerous types of cancer cells, thereby leading to anti-tumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. This evidence is reviewed here and suggests that future anti-cancer therapy might be developed from our knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system controls the growth and metastasis of malignant cells.

Endocannabinoid System Modulation In Cancer Biology and Therapy
Endocannabinoid system modulation in cancer biology and therapy. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system… led to the development of therapeutic agents related to either the stimulation or antagonism of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors… evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors, which share the useful property to discern between tumor cells and their non-transformed counterparts, could represent novel tumor-selective tools to treat cancer in addition to their already exploited use as palliative drugs.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
“Use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer therapy as palliative and curative agents… Cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa)… development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Changes in the Endocannabinoid System May Give Insight into new and Effective Treatments for Cancer
Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for centuries… cannabinoids might be effective anti-tumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer… Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system may be dysregulated in a number of cancers… the endocannabinoid system exerts a myriad of effects on tumor cell growth, progression, angiogenesis, and migration. With a notable few exceptions, targeting the endocannabinoid system with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or increase the endogenous levels of AEA may prove to have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various cancers.

Save Your Ass, Smoke Some Grass

When people think of grass, weed, pot or cannabis they think of hippies and parties.  What most people don’t think about is that cannabis is showing real promise, on the molecular level, in fighting cancers.  People of all walks have been touched by cancer.  Most people know of someone, has had a loved one go through it or they themselves have experienced cancer.  It is no wonder then that science and medicine have been working hard to find a cure.  Cannabis research has been taking notice especially for its anti-cancer discoveries.   Over 140,000 new cases were reported for colon and rectal cancers with 51,000 reported deaths.  Below you will see studies where cannabis has been examined in the context of colorectal cancers.  As always please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Single Nucleotide Change in the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CNR1) Gene in Colorectal Cancer Outcome
The cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR-1) and endogenous agonists of this receptor are present in the central and peripheral nervous systems including the gastrointestinal nervous system.Indeed nontumor paired colorectal tissues showed nucleotide change. A large number of patients with mutation in the CNR1 gene were observed. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of further studies in the use of cannabinoid analogs as receptor ligands to analyze potential therapeutic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis(programmed cell death) through Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells
We show that the CB1 receptor was mainly expressed in human normal colonic epithelium whereas tumor tissue was strongly positive for the CB2 receptor.  The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF-α acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.

Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death At A Molecular Level
Balanced apoptosis is crucial in development and homeostasis, and all multicellular organisms have a physiologically programmed continuum of pathways to apoptotic cell death. Further studies of the control at the molecular level of key components and promoters/suppressors of apoptosis may provide better approaches to treatment of autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Many important questions remain regarding the advantages of modifying apoptotic programs in clinical situations.

Beyond The Smoke: The Anticancer Properties Of Cannabis

Cannabis has many amazing healing properties that utilize the endocannabinoid system to reach target areas.  Scientists use this knowledge to target certain aspects of a condition depending on the symptoms.  It is well known that cannabis use can help cancer patients during the course of their battle, from increased appetite to pain relief.  Scientists have been uncovering cannabis’ anticancer effects as well.  This promising research is clearing the way so that one day we will fully understand this miracle plant.  Below are studies where science has looked at cannabis therapy when applied to cancer cells.  Please feel free to share and as always I encourage all to do their own research.  Please note that a lot of these are NEW 2012 released research which is really exciting! ~ Cherry Girl

CANNABIDIOL AS POTENTIAL ANTICANCER DRUG
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumorigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors.

Non-THC Cannabinoids Counteract Prostate Carcinoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo: Pro-Apoptotic Effects and Underlying Mechanisms 2012
Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell…In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. Conclusions. These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma.

Role of Lipid Rafts/Caveolae in the Anticancer Effect of Endocannabinoids 2012
The endocannabinoid system comprises the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and the whole apparatus… drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system might be used to retard or block cancer growth… Perturbation of lipid rafts/caveolae may in fact represent a useful tool for the development of a novel therapy for endocannabinoids-related diseases, such as cancer.

Update On the Endocannabinoid System As An Anticancer Target
Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) could offer an attractive antitumor target.  One direction that should be pursued in antitumor therapy is to select compounds with reduced psychoactivity. This is known to be connected to the CB1 receptor; thus, targeting the CB2 receptor is a popular objective. CB1 receptors could be maintained as a target to design new compounds, and mixed CB1-CB2 ligands could be effective if they are able to not cross the BBB. Furthermore, targeting the ECS with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or inhibitors of endogenous degrading systems such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors may have relevant therapeutic impact on tumor growth. Additional studies into the downstream consequences of endocannabinoid treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.

Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists In Cancer Therapy As Palliative and Curative Agents
Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors expressed by tumour cells may offer a novel strategy to treat cancer. In this chapter we review the more recent results generating interest in the field of cannabinoids and cancer, and provide novel suggestions for the development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

Inhibitory Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Stimulation on Tumor Growth and Metastatic Spreading: Actions on Signals Involved in Angiogenesis and Metastasis
Stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors by 2-methyl-arachidonyl-2′-fluoro-ethylamide (Met-F-AEA) inhibits the growth of a rat thyroid cancer cell-derived tumor in athymic mice by inhibiting the activity of the oncogene product p21ras.  Three weeks from the paw injection of 3LL cells, Met-F-AEA reduced significantly the number of metastatic nodes, in a way antagonized by SR141716A. Our findings indicate that CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Good News For CB1 Receptors: Endogenous Agonists Are in the Right Place
Good news for CB1 receptors: endogenous agonists are in the right place” and “CB1 receptor agonists might be used therapeutically to retard tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting at once tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

Cannabis: Your Heart Hero

More and more Americans are being classified as obese.  With obesity comes other complications such as cardiovascular disease.  Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease.  The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common.  It is estimated that one-third of Americans die from cardiovascular disease so it is no wonder that scientists have been hard at work trying to find a cure.   Below you will see studies where science has looked at cannabis compounds when applied to CVD.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor CB(2 ) in Cardiovascular Disorders: Promises and Controversies
“Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, which can be largely attributed to atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arteries… the lipid endocannabinoid system has emerged as a new therapeutic target in variety of disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main active constituent of marijuana, inhibited atherosclerotic plaque progression via a cannabinoid 2 (CB(2) ) receptor-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanism.

Endocannabinoid System in Cardiovascular Disorders – New Pharmacotherapeutic Opportunities
The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors) is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.

Never Fear Cannabis Is Here! How Cannabis Can Help With Fear, Anxiety, and Other Psychiatric Disorders

Nearly 19 million Americans suffer from a  psychiatric disorder which could include disorders such as specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.  Many veterans returning from war have found cannabis to be a relief from PTSD.  Below you will studies where science has studied the effects of cannabis compounds when applied to psychiatric disorders.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System in the Processing of Anxiety and Fear and How CB1 Receptors May Modulate Fear Extinction 
The endocannabinoid system recently emerged as an important modulator of many neuronal functions. Among them, the control of anxiety and acquired fear represents nowadays one of the most interesting fields of research.  Finally, a neurobiological model possibly able to implement the role of the endocannabinoid system in these processes will be proposed.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity During Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice
Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory.  We propose that the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates extinction of aversive memories, at least in part via regulation of the activity of kinases and phosphatases in a brain structure-dependent manner.

Extinction of Emotional Response As A Novel Approach of Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders 
The patogenesis of anxiety may be related to the process of an extinction of aversive memories… Studies on molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for individual fear extinction may serve as the basis of search for more effective forms of clinical treatment… ligands stimulating endogenous cannabinoid system… these substances stimulate different central mechanisms, they appear to act synergistically, to improve the behavioural therapy.

Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear
the findings in the present study suggest that augmenting eCB-mediated neurotransmission by inhibition of eCB transport or breakdown may provide a novel mechanism for enhancing the extinction of fear. As such, eCB reuptake inhibitors may serve as useful adjuncts in the treatment of anxiety disorders (such as PTSD, panic disorder, and OCD) as well as drug addiction and other disorders that respond to behavioral treatments utilizing extinction processes.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Controls Extinction of Aversive Memories
Acquisition and storage of aversive memories is one of the basic principles of central nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of reinforcement, the resulting behavioural response will gradually diminish to be finally extinct.  We propose that endocannabinoids facilitate extinction of aversive memories through their selective inhibitory effects on local inhibitory networks in the amygdala.

The Endocannabinoid system and Extinction Learning
As several human psychiatric disorders, such as phobia, generalized anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to involve aberrant memory processing and impaired adaptation to changed environmental conditions, the hope has been fuelled that the endocannabinoid system might be a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of these disorders.

Bringing the War Back Home: Mental Health Disorders Among 103,788 US Veterans Returning From Iraq and Afghanistan Seen at Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities
Co-occurring mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were detected early and in primary care medical settings in a substantial proportion of OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA facilities. Targeted early detection and intervention beginning in primary care settings are needed to prevent chronic mental illness and disability.

Psychosis and Trauma. Theorical Links Between Post-Traumatic and Psychotic Symptoms
The links between psychotic and psycho-traumatic symptoms are complex and multidirectional; this co-occurrence is a factor of seriousness. The clinician, while paying attention to these symptoms, has to distinguish the structure of the personality of the subject to articulate the psychotherapy and the pharmacological treatment. Further investigational studies may determine whether antipsychotics will enhance treatment response in PTSD patients with psychotic features.

How Some Green Can Help The Blues

Americans across the nation are facing mounting pressure from the economy and many other challenges.  Many are also suffering with depression and mood disorders along with added pressures.  The average American who has tried cannabis well knows the mood elevating effects which include uncontrollable giggling or laughter.  Of course it is also dependent on the right strain but that is where science comes in.  Below you will see studies where scientists have discovered why our moods are altered as well as further the knowledge we have on the interactions of cannabis’ compounds and our bodies.  Please feel free to share and I encourage all to do their own research as well ~ Cherry Girl

The Dopamine and Cannabinoid Interaction in the Modulation of Emotions and Cognition: Assessing the Role of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Neurons Expressing Dopamine D1 Receptors
Although cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are densely expressed in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), it is not fully understood to what extent they modulate emotional behaviors…….These results provided first direct evidence for a cross-talk between dopaminergic D1Rs and endocannabinoid system in terms of controlling negative affect.

Effects of Cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid and Cannabidiol in MPP(+) Affected Murine Mesencephalic Cultures
Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties… Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities… our data show that cannabinoids THC and THCA protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+) induced cell death.” (Possibly due to the cross-talk between  the dopamine and cannabinoid systems as seen in the study above)

Antidepressant-like Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated From Cannabis
Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.

 

Cannabis and Liver Disease

The human liver is the largest organ in the body.  It has many functions as well as afflictions.  Some are inherited and others are through abuse or viruses.  There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Others can be the result of drugs, poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness, it’s called cirrhosis.  Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, can be one sign of liver disease.  Like other parts of your body, cancer can affect the liver. You could also inherit a liver disease such as hemochromatosis.  Below are studies that show the interaction of cannabis compounds and the liver.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System As A Novel Target For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
We have recently demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors display opposite effects in the regulation of liver fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Indeed, both receptors are up-regulated in the liver of cirrhotic patients, and expressed in liver fibrogenic cells. Moreover, CB1 receptors are profibrogenic and accordingly, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant reduces fibrosis progression in three experimental models. In keeping with these results, daily cannabis smoking is a risk factor for fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In contrast, CB2 display antifibrogenic effects, by a mechanism involving reduction of liver fibrogenic cell accumulation. These results may offer new perspectives for the treatment of liver fibrosis, combining CB2 agonist and CB1 antagonist therapy.

The Endocannabinoid System and Liver Diseases
The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases… molecules targeting the CB(1) and CB(2) receptors may represent potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of liver diseases. At present, the CB(1) antagonists represent the most attractive pharmaceutical tool to resolve fat accumulation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and to treat patients with cirrhosis, as they may slow the progression of fibrosis and attenuate the cardiovascular alterations associated with the advanced stage of the disease.

Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease
Marijuana has been used for its psychoactive and medicinal properties for millennia. As other plant-derived substances, marijuana has been slow to yield its secrets, with insights into its mechanism of action beginning to emerge only during the last decades… Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana… Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB(1) blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists.

Endogenous Cannabinoids in Liver Disease: Many Darts For A Single Target
Endogenous cannabinoids are ubiquitous lipid-signaling molecules able to partially mimic the actions produced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound responsible for most of the effects of marijuana… The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in advanced liver disease and also plays a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and liver fibrosis… These findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system may open new avenues for the therapeutic regulation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in advanced liver disease.

Cannabinoid Receptors As New Targets of Antifibrosing Strategies During Chronic Liver Diseases
Cannabinoid receptors as new targets of antifibrosing strategies during chronic liver diseases… Chronic liver injury exposes the patient to liver fibrosis and its end stage, cirrhosis, is a major public health problem worldwide… prevailing causes of cirrhosis include chronic alcohol consumption, hepatitis C virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis…. the authors recently demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system shows promise as a novel target for antifibrotic therapy during chronic liver injury. Indeed, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 promote dual pro- and antifibrogenic effects, respectively. Therefore, endocannabinoid-based therapies, combining CB2 agonists and CB1 antagonists may open novel therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of chronic liver diseases.

CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonism: A New Strategy For the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis
Hepatic fibrosis, the common response associated with chronic liver diseases, ultimately leads to cirrhosis, a major public health problem worldwide.  Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 receptors decreased fibrogenesis by lowering hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and reducing accumulation of fibrogenic cells in the liver after apoptosis and growth inhibition of hepatic myofibroblasts. In conclusion, our study shows that CB1 receptor antagonists hold promise for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Role of Cannabinoids in Chronic Liver Diseases
The role of the endocannabinoid system in hepatic physiology and pathologic conditions has been studied recently. Unquestionably, influencing endocannabinoid signaling may have a beneficial effect on delaying or even reversing hepatic fibrosis.

CB2 Receptors As New Therapeutic Targets For Liver Diseases
phytocannabinoids have long been used for recreational and therapeutic purposes… studies have unravelled pleiotropic functions of CB2 receptors under physiological and pathological conditions, including acute and chronic liver diseases. Additional functions may soon arise… These findings may open novel therapeutic avenues, upon clinical development of CB2-specific molecules.

Beneficial Paracrine Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Liver Injury and Regeneration
CONCLUSION: CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration following acute insult, via distinct paracrine mechanisms involving hepatic myofibroblasts. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor Type I Modulates Alcohol-Induced Liver Fibrosis
CB1 expression is upregulated in human ALF (alcoholic liver fibrosis ) which is at least in part triggered by acetaldehyde (AA) and oxidative stress. Inhibition of CB1… or via genetic knock-out protects against alcoholic-induced fibrosis in vitro and in vivo….CB1 antagonists have been used in treating alcohol dependence without causing significant depression.

The Endocannabinoid System As A Key Mediator During Liver Diseases: New Insights and Therapeutic Openings
“The endocannabinoid system as a key mediator during liver diseases: new insights and therapeutic openings… hepatic cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) receptors display beneficial effects on alcoholic fatty liver, hepatic inflammation, liver injury, regeneration and fibrosis. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several lesions such as alcoholic and metabolic steatosis, liver fibrogenesis, or circulatory failure associated with cirrhosis… data obtained with peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists give real hopes in the development of active CB(1) molecules devoid of central adverse effects.

Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease: Classical Concepts and Recent Advances
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a primary consequence of heavy and prolonged drinking.  The observation that ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis share common pathways and genetic polymorphisms suggests operation of parallel pathogenic mechanisms. Future research involving genomics, epigenomics, deep sequencing and non-coding regulatory elements holds promise to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for ALD. There is also a need for adequate animal models to study pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level and targeted therapy.

The Role of the Cannabinoid System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
The lack of satisfactory results of alcohol dependence treatment force us to search for new directions of research.  SR141716 (rimonabant), a CB1 receptor antagonist, significantly lowers voluntary alcohol intake and motivation for its consumption in various experimental studies. Very encouraging results of preclinical studies were not completely confirmed in the clinical studies. However, further clinical studies are still necessary.

 

Interactions With Cannabis Compounds and the Human Endocannabinoid System in the Brain

We have know about the endocannabinoid system since the 60’s but we have only begun to scratch the surface of what our system is capable of.  This of course include the interaction with compounds found in the cannabis plant.  Below are studies that deal with the interaction of cannabis compounds and our endocannabinoid system in our brain.  Please feel free to share and spread the truth ~ Cherry Gurl

Multiple Functions of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Brain 2012
Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology.

Clinical Efficacy and Effectiveness of Sativex(®), A Combined Cannabinoid Medicine, in Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity 2012
Results from randomized, controlled trials have reported a reduction in the severity of symptoms associated with spasticity, leading to a better ability to perform daily activities and an improved perception of patients and their carers regarding functional status. These are highly encouraging findings that provide some much needed optimism for the treatment of this disabling and often painful symptom of MS.

Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-Convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures 2012
We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures… this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.

The Cannabinoid Receptor-2 is Involved in Allergic Inflammation 2012
These results clearly demonstrate that CB2 and its endogenous ligands participate not only in the acute, edematous phase of allergic dermatitis, but also in the chronic irreversible acanthosis reaction.

The Direct Pro-Fibrotic and Indirect Immune Anti-Fibrotic Balance of Blocking the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor 2012
Naïve CB2(-/-) mice had significantly decreased T-cell subsets. (II) Adoptive transfer of CB2(-/-) lymphocytes led to decreased fibrosis in the irradiated WT recipient as compared to animals receiving WT lymphocytes. Moreover, necro-inflammation also tended to decrease. (III) In-vitro, a CB2-antagonist directly increased human HSCs activation and increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation of mice/ human T-cells (healthy/ fibrotic) and their phagocytosis. Conclusions: CB2(-/-) lymphocytes exert an anti-fibrotic activity while lack of CB2-receptor in HSCs promotes fibrosis. These findings broaden our understanding of cannabinoid signaling in hepatic fibrosis beyond their activity solely in HSCs.

Therapeutic Use of Cannabis 2012
Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

Endocannabinoids Regulate Growth and Survival of Human Eccrine Sweat Gland-Derived Epithelial Cells 2012
The endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication.

 

The Human Prenatal Endocannabinoid System

Since the discovery of the human endocannabinoid system science has been busy trying to unlock the mysteries of this complex system.  Science has uncovered many interesting features of this system.  This includes the presence of this multi-function system in fetuses.   Below you will see studies on how science has uncovered in-dept knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in pre and post natal subjects.  I encourage all to do their own research and please feel free to share the TRUTH ~ Cherry Girl

Multiple Roles For the Endocannabinoid System During the Earliest Stages Of Life: Pre- and Postnatal Development
The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), endogenous ligands (‘endocannabinoids’), synthesising and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development.  Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development…the endocannabinoid system appears to play an essential role for development and survival… the endocannabinoid system plays several key roles in pre- and postnatal development. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms involved… in order to design strategies for the treatment of conditions such as infertility, mental retardation and failure-to-thrive.

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance For Development and In Pediatric Disease
The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: Importance for development and in pediatric disease… it is suggested that children may respond positively to medicinal applications of cannabinoids without undesirable central effects. Excellent clinical results have previously been reported in pediatric oncology and in case studies of children with severe neurological disease or brain trauma. We suggest cannabinoid treatment for children or young adults with cystic fibrosis in order to achieve an improvement of their health condition including improved food intake and reduced inflammatory exacerbations.

On the Application of Cannabis In Paediatrics and Epileptology
An initial report on the therapeutic application of delta 9-THC (THC) (Dronabinol, Marinol) in 8 children resp. adolescents suffering from the following conditions, is given: neurodegenerative disease, mitochondriopathy, posthypoxic state, epilepsy, posttraumatic reaction. THC effected reduced spasticity, improved dystonia, increased initiative, increased interest in the surroundings, and anticonvulsive action…possibility that THC-induced effects on ion channels and transmitters may explain its therapeutic activity seen in epileptic patients.

The Endocannabinoid-CB(1) Receptor System In Pre- and Postnatal Life
The endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor system in pre- and postnatal life.. CB(1) receptors display a transient presence in white matter areas of the pre- and postnatal nervous system, suggesting a role for CB(1) receptors in brain development…Further observations suggest that children may be less prone to psychoactive side effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or endocannabinoids than adults. The medical implications of these novel developments are far reaching and suggest a promising future for cannabinoids in pediatric medicine for conditions including “non-organic failure-to-thrive” and cystic fibrosis.

Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation In Adulthood
The appetite-stimulating effects of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) have been known since ancient times, and appear to be effected through the incentive and rewarding properties of foods. Investigations into the biological basis of the multiple effects of cannabis have yielded important breakthroughs in recent years… exciting progress in the understanding of how the endocannabinoid CB receptor systems influence appetite and body weight is stimulating the development of therapeutic orexigenic and anorectic agents. Furthermore, the role of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation for milk suckling in newborns may open new doors toward understanding nonorganic failure-to-thrive in infants, who display growth failure without known organic cause.

Ontogenetic Development of Cannabinoid Receptor Expression and Signal Transduction Functionality in the Human Brain
Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail.   This early pattern of expression of functionally active cannabinoid receptors, along with the transient and atypical localization of these proteins in white matter areas during the prenatal stages, suggest an specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the events related to human neural development.

 

The Miraculous Human CB1 Receptor

For over 50 years we have known of the human endocannabinoid system and with that the discovery of the CB1 receptor.  The CB1 receptor is found in the brain and is involved in a lot of functions.  Below you will see studies on the CB1 receptor and how they function within the body and with cannabis.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Mitochondrial CB(1) Receptors Regulate Neuronal Energy Metabolism
The mammalian brain is one of the organs with the highest energy demands, and mitochondria are key determinants of its functions. Thus, mtCB(1) receptors directly modulate neuronal energy metabolism, revealing a new mechanism of action of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in the brain.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Trafficking and the Role of the Intracellular Pool: Implications For Therapeutics
Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB(1)), an abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the CNS, is currently of significant interest as a therapeutic target.  These findings have significant implications for the interpretation of CB(1) biochemical studies and the design and application of cannabinoid therapeutics.

Cannabinoid Receptor Trafficking In Peripheral Cells Is Dynamically Regulated By A Binary Biochemical Switch 2012
The cannabinoid G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CB(1) and CB(2) are expressed in different peripheral cells.  This study describes, for the first time, the dynamic nature of CB receptor trafficking in the context of a biochemical switch, which may have implications for studies on the cell-type specific effects of cannabinoids and our understanding of the regulation of CB receptor cell surface expression.

Cannabis And The Human Immune System

For over 50 years science has been trying to unravel the questions that surround our endocannabinoid system.  Science has discovered many exciting breakthroughs including how cannabis, our endocannabinoid stem and our immune system work together.  below you will see studies on how this has been studied.  Please feel free to do your own research, seek out and share the truth ~ Cherry Girl

Immune Control By Endocannabinoids – New Mechanisms of Neuroprotection?
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and represents a local messenger system within and between the nervous and immune system. Apparently, the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune control and neuroprotection.

Cannabinoid Treatment Suppresses the T-helper Cell-Polarizing Function of Mouse Dendritic Cells Stimulated With Legionella Pneumophila Infection
“In conclusion, our results show that a major cellular target of THC-induced immune suppression of Th1 immunity is the dendritic cell and that the drug attenuates polarizing function… THC… might be of use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus, and therefore might be in the class of anti-inflammatory drugs recognized to interfere with earlier stages of immunity by suppressing DC activation.

Role of Cannabinoid Receptors In Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppression of IL-12p40 In Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected With Legionella Pneumophila
These results suggest that THC-induced suppression of serum IL-12 is partly due to a suppression of IL-12 production by dendritic cells and that G(i) signaling and cannabinoid receptors, but not TRPV1, are involved in this suppressive effect.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol As In Vivo Chemoattractant For Dendritic Cells and Adjuvant For Th1 Response To A Soluble Protein
The decision-making mechanisms that determine the choice of the appropriate effector immune response to a microbial challenge are poorly understood. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), injected intradermally in mice together with a soluble protein and a T helper-2 (Th2) priming Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonist during primary immunization, shifts the memory response to the Th1 type. As 2-AG may be induced in tissues by various stimuli at concentrations similar to that used in our study, this evidence might be of a wide-ranging pathophysiological relevance.

Presence and Regulation of the Endocannabinoid System In Human Dendritic Cells
Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, have been detected in several blood immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, basophils and lymphocytes. However, their presence in dendritic cells, which play a key role in the initiation and development of the immune response, has never been investigated.  These findings demonstrate for the first time that the endogenous cannabinoid system is present in human dendritic cells and can be regulated by cell activation.

The Endocannabinoid System: Mechanisms Behind Metabolic Homeostasis and Imbalance
The endocannabinoid system: mechanisms behind metabolic homeostasis and imbalance…EC agonists and receptors have been identified in the brain, liver, and peripheral adipose tissue, and the EC system is known to affect metabolism in these areas and others through neuromodulatory signals. Meal size, body weight, and numerous metabolic factors such as triglyceride and cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance can be affected via the EC system.

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Modulates Antigen Processing By Macrophages
THC differentially modulates the capacity of macrophages to process antigens that is necessary for the activation of CD4+ T cells… delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol modulates antigen processing by macrophages.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Key To Cannabis’ Healing Success

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 60’s science has been hard at work trying to unlock the mysteries surrounding cannabis and the interaction of the human body.  For thousands of years cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes.  Below you will see studies that explain a little as to why cannabis works the way it does within our system.  You will see how CB1 and   CB2 receptors interact with cannabis and how they play a key role in its therapeutic properties.   I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The CB(2) Cannabinoid Receptor Controls Myeloid Progenitor Trafficking: Involvement In the Pathogenesis of An Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Gene In T Cells By Cannabinoids
Effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated by two types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. In this report, we investigated whether CBs regulate gene expression of their cognate receptors in T cells and studied underlying mechanisms in CD4+ Jurkat T cells.  In summary, up-regulation of CB1 in T lymphocytes in response to CBs themselves may facilitate or enhance the various immunomodulatory effects related to CBs.

Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids In A Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids may act as immunosuppressive compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders… Overall, the data presented may have potential therapeutic implications in demyelinating pathologies such as MS; in particular, the involvement of cannabinoid receptor CB2 would enable nonpsychoactive therapy suitable for long-term use.

The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein
These results further support the proposed role of the CB1 receptor in controlling intraocular pressure, helping to explain the antiglaucoma properties of marijuana.

CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) From Various Donor Types
Marijuana cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, are G protein-coupled receptors… expressed in brain as well as cells of the periphery…results suggest that CBR expression is relatively constant across the human population.

Cannabinoid-receptor 1 Null Mice Are Susceptible To Neurofilament Damage and Caspase 3 Activation
Administered cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate signs of CNS inflammatory disease in a number of animal models, including allergic encephalomyelitis. More recently, neuroprotective actions have been attributed to activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in a number of in vitro and in vivo models…The data presented further strengthen the hypothesis of neuroprotection elicited via cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling.

Detailed Characterization of CB2 Receptor Protein Expression In Peripheral Blood Immune Cells From Healthy Human Volunteers Using Flow Cytometry
These data provide the first detailed analysis of CB2 protein levels in blood leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and identifies the cell types which could be targeted with CB-mimetic drugs in humans.

Cannabinoid-Induced Immune Suppression and Modulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells
The study of marijuana cannabinoid biology has led to many important discoveries in neuroscience and immunology. These studies have uncovered a new physiological system, the endocannabinoid system, which operates in the regulation of not only brain function but also the regulation of the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are suppressed by these agents leading to the hypothesis that these drugs may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this report, we review current information on cannabinoid ligand and receptor biology, mechanisms involved in immune suppression by cannabinoids with emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, and preclinical and clinical models analyzing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Immunoregulation of A CB2 Receptor Agonist In A Murine Model of NeuroAIDS
Chronic HIV-1 infection commonly affects behavioral, cognitive, and motor functions in the infected human host and is commonly referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)…Our results support the notion that CB2 receptor agonists may be a viable therapeutic candidate for HAND.

Anandamide Prior To Sensitization Increases Cell-Mediated Immunity In Mice
The endocannabinoid system has become a topic of great interest in pharmacology due to its remarkable distribution in mammal organisms and capacity to play a modulatory role on several physiological systems, including modulation of immunity. Many studies have shown that administration of cannabinoids causes inhibitory effects on immune cells, including decreased proliferation and antigen-presenting cell (APC) co-stimulatory activity. In contrast, other groups have shown that some cannabinoids might present stimulatory actions on macrophage activity and T cell activation…Anandamide prior to sensitization increases cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Endogenous Modulators of Synaptic Transmission: Cannabinoid Regulation In the Supraoptic Nucleus
The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) are a major source of both systemic and central release of the neurohypophyseal peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP).  Further study of eCB signalling in the SON, including its interaction with AVP neurons, promises to extend our understanding of the synaptic regulation of SON physiological function.

 

 

Human Endocannabinoid System: Science’s Target For New Therapies

Since the discovery of the human endocannabinoid system science has had it in its cross hairs for many potential therapies as well as a better understanding of how our body works within systems.  We have found that the endocannabinoid system has a role in many functions throughout the body.  Below you will see studies where the endocannabinoid system was targeted for therapies with promising outcomes.  Please feel free to share this information with others and your doctor when deciding which treatment options are best for you.  Keep in mind that cannabis is all natural and is used in its natural form.  There are many options when choosing cannabis for a treatment option and goes beyond just smoked cannabis.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth about cannabis ~ Cherry Girl

Possible Endocannabinoid Control of Colorectal Cancer Growth (2003)
Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth…Anandamide, 2-AG, and… CBR agonist… potently inhibit cell proliferation. This effect is blocked by the CB(1) antagonist, but not by the CB(2) antagonist, and is mimicked by CB(1)-selective, but not CB(2)-selective, agonists… both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors mediate inhibition of proliferation. Inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation enhance endocannabinoid levels and block cell proliferation.

The Endocannabinoid System In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (2008)
The endocannabinoid system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis…Currently the only licensed therapy available for the treatment of ALS is the anti-glutamatergic agent Riluzole, which has limited therapeutic effects. However, there is increasing evidence that cannabinoids and manipulation of the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic value in ALS, in addition to other neurodegenerative conditions. Cannabinoids exert anti-glutamatergic and anti-inflammatory actions through activation of the CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, respectively. Activation of CB(1) receptors therefore inhibit glutamate release… Meanwhile, CB(2) receptors influence inflammation, whereby receptor activation reduces microglial activation, resulting in a decrease in neurotoxic mediators. Finally, cannabinoid agents may also exert anti-oxidant actions by a receptor-independent mechanism. Therefore the ability of cannabinoids to target multiple neurotoxic pathways in different cell populations increase their therapeutic potential in the treatment of ALS. Recent studies investigating this potential in models of ALS, in particular those that focus on strategies that activate CB(2) receptors, are discussed.

Interaction of Endocannabinoid System and Steroid Hormones In the Control of Colon Cancer Cell Growth (2012)
Interaction of endocannabinoid system and steroid hormones in the control of colon cancer cell growth…Our results partially elucidated the role of EC system in the molecular mechanisms enrolled by steroids in the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth and strongly suggested that targeting the EC system represent a promising tool to improve the efficacy of CRC (colorectal cancer cell) treatments.

The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications (2011)
The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications…The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications… the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes…therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system… certain plant-derived cannabinoids… possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties.

The Endocannabinoid System In Ageing: A New Target For Drug Development (2006)
The endocannabinoid system in ageing: a new target for drug development…. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are the main endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors able to mimic several pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations like hashish and marijuana. AEA is released “on demand”…. Together with AEA and congeners, the proteins which bind, synthesize, transport and hydrolyze AEA form the “endocannabinoid system”. Endogenous cannabinoids are present in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, suggesting… therapeutic potential… drugs able to modulate the endocannabinoid tone for the treatment of ageing and age-related human pathologies.

Endocannabinoid System In Cardiovascular Disorders – New Pharmacotherapeutic Opportunities (2011)
Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders – new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities.The long history of Cannabis sativa had its development oriented for medicine after the discovery and chemical characterization of its main active ingredient, the 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC). Consequently, a binding site for 9-THC was identified in and the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was cloned, followed by the CB2 and by the discover of two endogenous agonists: anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes that catalyze its synthesis and degradation constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system…The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors) is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Therapeutic Implications For Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders (2005)
The endogenous cannabinoid system. Therapeutic implications for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. For about 5,000 years, cannabis has been used as a therapeutic agent. There has been growing interest in the medical use of cannabinoids. This is based on the discovery that cannabinoids act with specific receptors (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptors are located in specific brain areas and CB2 receptors on cells of the immune system… findings could possibly lead to the use of synthetic and natural cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in various areas.

Targeted Modulators of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System: Future Medications to Treat Addiction Disorders and Obesity (2007)
Targeted modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system: future medications to treat addiction disorders and obesity…Pressing health care needs have made the rational design of targeted CB1 cannabinoid-receptor modulators a promising route to future medications with significant therapeutic impact.

The Importance of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System In Various Neuropsychiatric Disorders (2007)
The importance of the endogenous cannabinoid system in various neuropsychiatric disorders…The endogenous cannabinoid system was first described in 1988. There are two specific receptors, the CB2-receptor, located in the lymphatic system and the CB1-receptor occurring predominantly in the central nervous system…In 1992 endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid system were discovered for the first time (e.g. anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol)…A dysregulation in the endogenous cannabinoid/anandamide system could possibly play an import role in the etiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and schizophrenic psychoses…administration of cannabinoids affects the symptoms of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome positively… In ischaemic brain lesions cannabinoids seem to have a neuroprotective effect…interactions between the endogenous opioid system and the endogenous cannabainoid system are pointed out. This is of interest since it could be shown in experiments that the absence of CB1 receptors reduces the positive reinforcement of opiate administration.

Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System in the Brain (2005)
Therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system in the brain. Cannabinoids… marijuana and other derivatives of Cannabis sativa… these compounds are now also considered for their therapeutic potential, since the term “cannabinoid” includes much more compounds than those present in Cannabis sativa derivatives… there are numerous synthetic cannabinoids obtained by modifications from plant-derived cannabinoids… All this boom of the cannabinoid pharmacology has an explanation in the discovery of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays a modulatory role… The objective of the article will be to review the advances in the study of the endocannabinoid system and their functions in the brain, as well as their alterations in a variety of pathologies and the proposed therapeutic benefits of novel cannabinoid-related compounds that improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of classic cannabinoids.

The Endocannabinoid Signaling System: A Marriage of PUFA and Musculoskeletal Health (2010)
The endocannabinoid signaling system: a marriage of PUFA and musculoskeletal health…The potential of dietary PUFA to regulate this signaling system to influence the metabolic and physiological outcomes favorable to musculoskeletal health is the purpose… we first introduce the EC agonists (ligands) and their receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the general actions of EC signaling in various organs and systems. Second, we describe EC signaling in bone and muscle and how dietary PUFA influence the levels of endogenous agonists. Third, we discuss the potential implications of how dietary PUFA impact this system to minimize muscle atrophy and osteopenia and support healthy muscle development and bone modeling.

The Endocannabinoid System: Physiology and Pharmacology (2005)
The endocannabinoid system: physiology and pharmacology…The endogenous cannabinoid system is an ubiquitous lipid signalling system that appeared early in evolution and which has important regulatory functions throughout the body in all vertebrates…Outside the brain, the endocannabinoid system is one of the crucial modulators of the autonomic nervous system, the immune system and microcirculation…Recent pharmacological advances have led to the synthesis of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. These new tools have enabled the study of the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids and have opened up new strategies in the treatment of pain, obesity, neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, emotional disturbances such as anxiety and other psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. Recent advances have specifically linked the endogenous cannabinoid system to alcoholism, and cannabinoid receptor antagonism now emerges as a promising therapeutic alternative for alcohol dependence and relapse.”— I believe: since the endo-plant cannabinoid system can be the target for Big Pharma’s for-private-profit “treatments.

The Endocannabinoid System As An Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy (2006)
The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. The recent identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid ligands has triggered an exponential growth of studies exploring the endocannabinoid system and its regulatory functions in health and disease…The growing number of preclinical studies and clinical trials with compounds that modulate the endocannabinoid system will probably result in novel therapeutic approaches in a number of diseases for which current treatments do not fully address the patients’ need. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview on the current state of knowledge of the endocannabinoid system as a target of pharmacotherapy.

The Endocannabinoid System: An Osteopathic Perspective (2008)
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands, and ligand-metabolizing enzymes. The system exemplifies the osteopathic principle that the body possesses self-regulatory mechanisms that are self-healing in nature…The endocannabinoid system is a homeostatic mechanism that exemplifies the key osteopathic concepts of mind-body unity on a molecular level… osteopathic physicians may enhance endocannabinoid function in their patients…The plant Cannabis sativa, the source of cannabis (ie, marijuana, hashish), is native to central Asia. Several indigenous “traditional medicine” systems (eg, Ayurvedic medicine, Tibetan medicine, traditional Chinese medicine) evolved and make use of this substance.

Our Endocannabinoid System: Key To Understanding The Human Body

Since discovering the endocannabinoid system scientists have been using it as a target to cure or help many ailments.  When looking through the myriad of published medical studies one will quickly see this trend.  This is just one more reason why understanding the human endocannabinoid system is crucial.  Below you will see studies where the endocannabinoid system was targeted for therapies with promising outcomes.  Please feel free to share this information with others and your doctor when deciding which treatment options are best for you.  Keep in mind that cannabis is all natural and is used in its natural form.  There are many options when choosing cannabis for a treatment option and goes beyond just smoked cannabis.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth about cannabis ~ Cherry Girl

The Endocannabinoid System: Role In Energy Regulation (2012)
The endocannabinoid system: role in energy regulation. Cannabis sativa has been used since antiquity to treat many ailments… The primary psychoactive constituent of this plant, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is an FDA approved medication… The effects of THC are mediated through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which promotes a positive energy balance through stimulation of appetite as well as shifting homeostatic mechanisms toward energy storage… we discuss… the therapeutic potential of targeting this system.

Cannabis Sativa and the Endogenous Cannabinoid System: Therapeutic Potential For Appetite Regulation (2011)
Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation. The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used for thousands of years as a medicine…only recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components… we discuss evidence describing the endocannabinoid system, its endogenous and exogenous ligands and their varied effects… we also critically consider the mounting evidence which suggests non-Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoids play a vital role in C. sativa-induced feeding pattern changes… given the wide range of phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa… we demonstrate non-Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoids retain an important and, as yet, untapped clinical potential.

The Endocannabinoid System and Prospects Her Stimulation In Clinical Medicine (2007)
The endocannabinoid system and prospects her stimulation in clinical medicine… The history of use by the man of plants of a sort Cannabis totals more than 4000 years… Cannabis sowing, named also “Indian” – cultural plant, which has set of applications. From it received fibres for hemp of ropes and make a fabric similar on linen. Its stalks went on manufacture glossy of a paper and building of plates… as fuel instead of diesel… The greatest popularity Cannabis has received as raw material for reception of products (marijuana, hashish etc) …Cannabis in the medical purposes: at migraine, spasmes, vomiting, pains of a different origin etc.

Cannabinoid System In the Skin – A Possible Target For future Therapies In Dermatology (2009)
Cannabinoid system in the skin -a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.Cannabinoids and their derivatives are group of more than 60 biologically active chemical agents, which have been used in natural medicine for centuries. The major agent of exogenous cannabinoids is Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), natural psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. However, psychoactive properties of these substances limited their use as approved medicines…cannabinoids are important mediators in the skin… we summarized the significant role of the cannabinoid system in the cutaneous physiology and pathology, pointing out possible future therapeutic targets.

Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System In Perinatal Asphyxia (2011)
Therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system in perinatal asphyxia… Perinatal asphyxia is the most frequent cause of neonatal brain injury and, despite advances in neonatology, it has not been possible to reduce its incidence..it is necessary to find out new and more effective therapeutic strategies, appearing the use of cannabinoids as a promising one…The endocannabinoid system modulates a wide range of physiological processes in mammals… it has been considered as an endogenous neuroprotective system… modulation of the endocannabinoid system through the administration of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids has demonstrated neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo… it seems to play an important role in the development of the central nervous system, as it appears in the fetal period since the beginning.
CONCLUSION: Modulation of the endocannabinoid system appears as a novel therapeutic strategy against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System In Islet Biology (2011)
The role of the endocannabinoid system in islet biology…It is now established that there is a functional endocannabinoid system in the pancreatic islet of Langerhans and that endocannabinoids are released concurrently with glucose-induced insulin secretion. The majority of the published papers show evidence of negative effects of the endocannabinoids on insulin secretion with antagonism of the cannabinoid 1 receptor improving beta cell function.

The Endocannabinoid System: A Promising Target For the Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2009)
The endocannabinoid system: a promising target for the management of type 2 diabetes…human observations suggest that the endocannabinoid (EC) system is overactivated in presence of abdominal obesity and/or diabetes, and contributes to disturbances of energy balance and metabolism… ECS regulates the intake of nutrients through central mechanisms located within the hypothalamus and limbic area, but also intervenes in transport, metabolism and deposit of the nutrients in the digestive tract, liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Activation of both central and peripheral CB1 receptors promotes weight gain… Conversely, selective CB(1) receptor antagonist in clinical use, has shown to reduce body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood pressure, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein levels, and to increase HDL cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations in both non-diabetic and diabetic overweight/obese patients.

The Endocannabinoid System As A Target For Obesity Treatment (2008)
The endocannabinoid system as a target for obesity treatment…Among the promising new agents are the CB(1) receptor antagonists. These agents target receptors of the endocannabinoid system, a neuromodulatory system found to influence energy balance, eating behavior, and metabolic homeostasis via central and peripheral mechanisms…antagonism of CB(1) receptors has resulted in meaningful weight loss and improvement of lipid and glycemic profiles. Thus, these agents provide a rational and effective approach for the management of not only overweight and obesity but also their metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae.

Pharmacotherapeutic Targeting of the Endocannabinoid Signaling System: Drugs For Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome (2008)
Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the endocannabinoid signaling system: drugs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome…Endogenous signaling lipids (“endocannabinoids”) functionally related to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana (Cannabis), are important biomediators and metabolic regulators critical to mammalian (patho)physiology…The ubiquitous and diverse regulatory actions of the endocannabinoid system in health and disease have supported the regulatory approval of natural products and synthetic agents as drugs that alter endocannabinoid-system activity. More recent data support the concept that the endocananbinoid system may be modulated for therapeutic gain at discrete pharmacological targets with safety and efficacy. Potential medications based on the endocannabinoid system have thus become a central focus of contemporary translational research for varied indications with important unmet medical needs…selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor ligands to attenuate endocannabinoid signaling represents a state-of-the-art approach. 

 

Video – Cannabis Botany of Desire

Short 8 minute video on cannabis and our Endocannabinoid system.

Monumental Achievement – Cannabis Plant Genetics Mapped

In 2011 we saw cannabis all over the news.  We saw raids, booming industries, more states push for and more doctors taking a stand for legalization.  Cannabis has been in use by humans since at least 2737 BCE with Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung recorded prescribing it for a number of ailments.

There are many mysteries and controversies surrounding the cannabis plant.  Science has been trying to unravel them for years.  In 2011 we had a monumental breakthrough that quite literally could change the course of history.

Kevin McKernan has stacked up a long list of big accomplishments at just 38.  He is the owner of Medicinal Genomics with a lab in Amsterdam for researchers to freely study the cannabis plant.  Kevin was part of the Human Genome Project for four years.  He also worked on a robotic system that could handle He also developed methods to process DNA 100,000 times faster.

With a man who’s resume is that impressive you have to ask yourself why would a guy like that get into the business of studying cannabis.  He did work on mapping tumors and after working with doctors and patients started to see that many cancer patients were using cannabis.  After looking into cannabis he saw that there was much more to this plant and that it did have medicinal value.

While working with oncologist he found that if you sequence a tumors DNA as well as the patient you will discover the differences which can then become a target for drug therapies.  With cannabis being mapped the same theory could apply, instead of using Big Pharma drugs you could use Cannabinoids.

With both the Indica and Cannabis plant genetics mapped science can now start to get a better grasp on how cannabinoids interact with our bodies.  When we can successfully target each person illness with specific cannabinoids we will effectively understand the science behind the curing powers of cannabis.

Science will finally be able to confirm what millions have known for thousands of years.  Today we know more about THC, the psychoactive ingredient and the CBD, non-psychoactive ingredient and how the synthases of each are the genes that code for an enzyme that helps fold the hydrocarbons into Cannabinoids.

What controls the other 83 cannabinoids and other hundreds of terpenes is still unknown.   Many genes that were bred out in search of higher THC content since the government prohibited cannabis use, will need to be brought back through selective breading.

This is one more step in our fight for legalization.  With scientific proof the government will have no choice but to recognize cannabis has medicinal value.

Even the national Cancer Institute briefly posted a page that listed cannabis as a pain reliever and anti-nausea as well as possible anti-tumor effects.  The government made them take it down since this has only been proven in cell cultures and rats although it is currently in human clinical trials.

When dealing with chemotherapeutic drugs there is a fine line between killing the tumor and killing the patient.  Whats exciting about cannabis is that it is not fatal and very few drug therapies have such a forgiving window.

With all this new data in the coming years we will see our knowledge grow and hopefully result in legalization.  It will take all of us making our voices heard, that we should have a natural choice when treating our illnesses.  Kevin and his team have posted their findings online for all to look at.  Please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl