Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoid Receptors, and Cannabinoids CURING Cancer

Cannabis holds many healing properties that are slowly being unraveled.  Since the 60’s it has been known that the human body contains an Endocannabinoid system that interacts with cannabis.  Since then science has discovered many things and continues in the search for the key to unlocking the cure.  Many believe in the power of cannabis to cure many things including cancer.  Scientists are hard at work trying to prove the very same thing.  Below you will see studies that show how science has unlocked some mysteries.  These are valid published medical studies dealing with out endocannabinoid system please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

Cannabinoids In the Treatment of Cancer
Cannabinoids, the active components of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, along with their endogenous counterparts and synthetic derivatives, have elicited anti-cancer effects in many different in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. While the various cannabinoids have been examined in a variety of cancer models, recent studies have focused on the role of cannabinoid receptor agonists (both CB(1) and CB(2)) in the treatment of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties of the cannabinoids, discuss their potential mechanisms of action, as well as explore controversies surrounding the results.

Changes In the Endocannabinoid System May Give Insight Into New and Effective Treatments For Cancer
Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for centuries, however, it was not until the isolation of the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Δ9-THC) and the subsequent discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid signaling system that research into the therapeutic value of this system reemerged. Ongoing research is determining that regulation of theendocannabinoid system may be effective in the treatment of pain, glaucoma, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. In addition, cannabinoids might be effective anti-tumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cell lines.   In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system exerts a myriad of effects on tumor cell growth, progression, angiogenesis, and migration. With a notable few exceptions, targeting the endocannabinoid system with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or increase the endogenous levels of AEA may prove to have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various cancers. Further studies into the downstream consequences of AEA treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.

The Endocannabinoid System and Cancer: Therapeutic Implication
Identification of safe and effective treatments to manage and improve cancer therapy is critical to improve quality of life and reduce unnecessary suffering in cancer patients. In this regard, cannabis-like compounds offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast, prostate and bone cancer in patients.

Endocannabinoids As Emerging Suppressors of Angiogenesis and Tumor Invasion
The medicinal properties of extracts from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa have been known for centuries but only in the 90s membrane receptors for the Cannabis major principle were discovered in mammalian cells…endocannabinoids are now emerging as suppressors of angiogenesis and tumor spreading since they have been reported to inhibit angiogenesis, cell migration and metastasis in different types of cancer, pointing to a potential role of the endocannabinoid system as a target for a therapeutic approach of such malignant diseases. The potential use of cannabinoids to retard tumor growth and spreading is even more appealing considering that they show a good safety profile, regarding toxicity, and are already used in cancer patients as palliatives to stimulate appetite and to prevent devastating effects such as nausea, vomiting and pain.

Therapeutic Target-In-Waiting
CB(2) cannabinoid receptor agonists hold promise as a new class of therapeutics for indications as diverse as pain, neuroinflammation, immune suppression and osteoporosis. These potential indications are supported by strong preliminary data from multiple investigators using diverse preclinical models.

Cannabidiol Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis Via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Overall, our data indicate that cannabinoids induce ICAM-1, thereby conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased cancer cell invasiveness.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 is A Potential Drug Target For Treatment of Translocation-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma
Because cannabinoid receptor agonists are capable of reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in diverse cancer cells such as glioma, breast cancer, and melanoma, we evaluated whether CB1 is a potential drug target in rhabdomyosarcoma.Our study shows that treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonists HU210 and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol lowers the viability of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma cells through the induction of apoptosis.These results support the notion that cannabinoid receptor agonists represent a novel targeted approach for treatment of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma.

PAX3-FOXO1 Induces Cannabinoid Receptor 1 to Enhance Cell Invasion and Metastasis
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a muscle-derived childhood tumor characterized by production of oncogenic PAX3/7-FOXO1 chimeric transcription factors…Genetic or pharmacologic abrogation of (Cnr1/Cb1) inhibited the enhanced basement membrane invasion induced by PAX3-FOXO1. Cnr1 loss by either route also dramatically reduced lung metastasis formation. Taken together, our findings strongly implicate Cnr1 as a novel tractable target to inhibit ARMS invasion and metastasis.

The Endocannabinoid System In Cancer-Potential Therapeutic Target?
Endogenous arachidonic acid metabolites with properties similar to compounds of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, the so-called endocannabinoids, have effects on various types of cancer. Although endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids may have pro-proliferative effects, predominantly inhibitory effects on tumor growth, angiogenesis, migration and metastasis have been described. Remarkably, these effects may be selective for the cancer cells, while normal cells and tissues are spared. Such apparent tumor cell selectivity makes the endocannabinoid system an attractive potential target for cancer therapy.

 

 

Targeting Our Endocannabinoid System:Search For Nature’s Cure

The endocannabinoid system was discovered in the 1960’s and since then scientists have been hard at work trying to unravel the mysteries.  Below you will see studies showing how the endocannabinoid system within the human body is at the center for learning how to treat many illnesses and diseases. Please feel free to share the truth about the CURE ~ Cherry Girl

Endocannabinoids In The Immune System and Cancer
Although its action as an immunomodulatory molecule requires further characterization, modulation of the endocannabinoid system interferes with cancer cell proliferation either by inhibiting mitogenic autocrine/paracrine loops or by directly inducing apoptosis.   In conclusion, further investigations are needed to elucidate the function of endocannabinoids as immunosuppressant and antiproliferative/cytotoxic agents. The experimental evidence reviewed in this article argues in favor of the therapeutic potential of these compounds in immune disorders and cancer.

Endocannabinoid System Modulation In Cancer Biology and Therapy
The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and the recognition of its impact in a plethora of pathological conditions, led to the development of therapeutic agents related to either the stimulation or antagonism of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors…Endocannabinoid-related agents have been reported to affect multiple signaling pathways and biological processes involved in the development of cancer, displaying an interesting anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activity both in vitro and in vivo in several models of cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors, which share the useful property to discern between tumor cells and their non-transformed counterparts, represent novel tumor-selective tools to treat cancer in addition to their already exploited use as palliative drugs to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, pain and anorexia/weight loss in cancer patients.

Possible Endocannabinoid Control Of Colorectal Cancer Growth
CONCLUSIONS: Endocannabinoid levels are enhanced in transformed colon mucosa cells possibly to counteract proliferation via CBRs. Inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation may prove useful anticancer agents

Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Cancer
Modulation of the endocannabinoid system by pharmacological agents in various cancer types reveals that it can mediate antiproliferative and apoptotic effects by both cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent pathways…the endocannabinoid system is a promising target for the development of novel chemotherapeutics to treat cancer.

The Endocannabinoid System As A Target For The Development Of New Drugs For Cancer Therapy
stimulation of cannabinoid receptors by either THC or the endocannabinoids influence the intracellular events controlling the proliferation and apoptosis of numerous types of cancer cells, thereby leading to anti-tumour effects both in vitro and in vivo

Newly Released Studies That Show Medical Value Of Cannabis 2011

As we see this year come to a close it is time to look back over 2011 and view the studies that were released this year that show cannabis to be a treatment option or a cure for an illness.  Please share the truth about cannabis ~ Cherry Girl

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1) Activation Inhibits Small GTPase RhoA Activity and Regulates Motility of Prostate Carcinoma Cells 
Cannabinoid receptor 1 activation stops and controls the growth of prostate cancer cells.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene is Associated With Alcohol Dependence
Cannabinoid receptor 1 is involved in alcoholism. CB1 is the target for treatment.

CB(1) Receptor Activation Inhibits Neuronal and Astrocytic Intermediary Metabolism in the Rat Hippocampus
In conclusion, CB(1)Rs are able to control hippocampal intermediary metabolism in both neuronal and glial compartments, which suggests new alternative mechanisms by which CB(1)Rs control cell physiology and afford neuroprotection.

Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease With Cannabis

It is estimated that 5.1 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks.  Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia among older people. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities.  Scientists have been working on finding a cure for this debilitating disease.  One option was cannabis.  Below you will find several studies where cannabis was studied for Alzheimer’s Disease please share the truth about the CURE ~ Cherry Girl

Alzheimer’s Disease; Taking the Edge Off With Cannabinoids?
Manipulation of the cannabinoid pathway offers a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of AD that may be more efficacious than current treatment regimes. Cannabinoids can reduce the oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis that is evoked by Aβ, while promoting the brain’s intrinsic repair mechanisms.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2190031/?tool=pubmed

Multi-Target-Directed Ligands in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment.
AD is related to increased levels of the amyloid β peptide (A β) and the hyperphosphorylated tau protein, along with loss of neurons and synapses. Moreover, there is some evidence pointing to the role of oxidative stress, metal ion deregulation, inflammation and cell cycle regulatory failure in its pathogenesis. There are many attractive targets for the development of anti-AD drugs, and the multi-factor nature of this disease calls for multi-target-directed compounds which can be beneficial for AD treatment.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22050745

The Endocannabinoid System and Alzheimer’s Disease.
If you want to understand why CANNABINOIDS CURE, you need to know about the endoCANNABINOID SYSTEM. Cannabinoids CURE because of cannabinoid receptors and the endoCANNABINOID SYSTEM. Cannabis CURES ALzheimer’s and more, via the endoCANNABINOID SYSTEM: “Data obtained for this disease and in human samples seem to corroborate the notion that the activation of the ECS, through the use of agonists or by enhancing the endogenous cannabinoid tone, may induce beneficial effects on the evolution of this disease.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952652

Cannabinoid System in Neurodegeneration: New Perspectives In Alzheimer’s Disease 
Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The presence of functional cannabinoid CB2 receptors in central nervous system (CNS) has provoked that this receptor and its agonist ligands are now considered as promising pharmacological targets for neurological diseases.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19456285

Cannabinoids As Therapeutic Agents For Ablating Neuroinflammatory Disease
Ablate means to remove or destroy biologically. Keep that in mind when reading this: “Cannabinoids may serve as ideal agents for adjunct treatment of pathological processes that have a neuroinflammatory component.As highly lipophilic molecules, they readily access the brain.Furthermore, they have relatively low toxicity and can be engineered to selectively target cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid-cannabinoid receptor system may prove therapeutically manageable in ablating neuropathogenic disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, HIV encephalitis, closed head injury, and granulomatous amebic encephalitis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750822/?tool=pubmed

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer’s Disease: Facts and Hypotheses
There is evidence, from in vivo studies on beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, also for a possible causative role of endocannabinoids in the impairment in memory retention, which is typical of AD. This might open the way to the use of cannabinoid receptor antagonists as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of cognitive deficits in the more advanced phases of this disorder. The scant, but nevertheless important literature on the regulation and role of the endocannabinoid system in AD, and on the potential treatment of this disorder with cannabinoids and endocannabinoid-based drugs, are discussed in this mini-review.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18781980

Role of CB2 Receptors in Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabinoids
Given the lack of psychoactivity demonstrated by selective CB2 receptor agonists, this receptor becomes an interesting target for the treatment of neurological diseases, in particular, certain neurodegenerative disorders in which induction/up-regulation of CB2 receptors has been demonstrated. These disorders include Alzheimer’s disease and others. In experimental models, the activation of CB2 receptors has been related to a delayed progression of neurodegenerative events. The present article will review the evidence supporting that CB2 receptors might represent a key element in the endogenous response against different types of cytotoxic events, and that this receptor type may be a clinically promising target for the control of brain damage in neurodegenerative disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18291574

Stimulation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Suppresses Microglial Activation
Activated microglial cells have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many data reveal that cannabinoids mediate suppression of inflammation in vitro and in vivo through stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). These results provide mechanistic insight into beneficial effects provided by cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulation in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly AD.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1352348/?tool=pubmed

Effects of Cannabinoids on the Immune System and Central Nervous System: Therapeutic Implications
‎1999: “Cannabinoids possess immunomodulatory activity, are neuroprotective in vivo and in vitro and can modify the production of inflammatory mediators… Cannabinoid-induced immunosuppression may have implications for the treatment of neurological disorders that are associated with excess immunological activity, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease.There is anecdotal evidence thatcannabis use improves the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, and studies with animal models are beginning to provide evidence for the mechanism of such effects. The development of nonpsychotropic cannabinoid analogues and modulators of the metabolism of endogenous cannabinoid ligands may lead to novel approaches to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18031185

A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology
A link between the endocannabinoid system and Alzheimer’s disease has been discovered which has provided a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.New targets for this debilitating disease are critical as Alzheimer’s disease afflicts over 20 million people worldwide, with the number of diagnosed cases continuing to rise at an exponential rate.These studies have demonstrated the ability of cannabinoids to provide neuroprotection against β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) toxicity.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562334/?tool=pubmed

Cannabidiol: From An Inactive Cannabinoid to A Drug With Wide Spectrum of Action
The last five years have shown a remarkable increase in publications on cannabidiol mainly stimulated by the discovery of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Studies have suggested a wide range of therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on several conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, etc…In the last 45 years it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has a wide range of pharmacological effects, many of which being of great therapeutic interest, but still waiting to be confirmed by clinical trials.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833429

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol For Nighttime Agitation In Severe Dementia
Nighttime agitation occurs frequently in patients with dementia and represents the number one burden on caregivers today. Current treatment options are few and limited due to substantial side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that THC (Dronabinol) was able to reduce nocturnal motor activity and agitation in severely demented patients. Thus, it appears that THC (Dronabinol) may be a safe new treatment option for behavioral and circadian disturbances in dementia.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521031

The Seek of Neuroprotection: Introducing Cannabinoids
2007: The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is emerging as a natural system of neuroprotection. This consideration is based on properties of cannabinoids as vasodilatory effect, inhibition of the release of excitotoxic amino acids and cytokines, and the modulation of oxidative stress and toxic production of nitric oxide. Such effects have been demonstrated in models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions, and postulate cannabinoids as valuable neuroprotective agents. Patents related to cannabinoid receptors are also discussed.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18221224

CB2 Receptors in the Brain: Role in Central Immune Function – Cebral
The topic is neuroinflammation, which is relevant to Alzheimer’s and more. Ablation means removing or destroying biologically: “Selective targeting of the Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2R) could lead to ablation of neuropathological processes while minimizing psychotropic effects that could be exerted by activation of the CB1R.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707584/full

Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids Reduce Microglial Activation in Vitro and in Vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease
Microglial activation is an invariant feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is noteworthy that cannabinoids are neuroprotective by preventing β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation both in vitro and in vivo. CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD. Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350020

Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation
Cannabinoids prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: Cannabis protects the brain by blocking microglial activation. “Our results indicate that cannabinoid receptors are important in the pathology of AD and that cannabinoids succeed in preventing the neurodegenerative process occurring in the disease. Because cannabinoids combine both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions, our findings may set the basis for the use of these compounds as a therapeutic approach for AD.
http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/8/1904.long