Cannabis And The Human Immune System

For over 50 years science has been trying to unravel the questions that surround our endocannabinoid system.  Science has discovered many exciting breakthroughs including how cannabis, our endocannabinoid stem and our immune system work together.  below you will see studies on how this has been studied.  Please feel free to do your own research, seek out and share the truth ~ Cherry Girl

Immune Control By Endocannabinoids – New Mechanisms of Neuroprotection?
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and represents a local messenger system within and between the nervous and immune system. Apparently, the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune control and neuroprotection.

Cannabinoid Treatment Suppresses the T-helper Cell-Polarizing Function of Mouse Dendritic Cells Stimulated With Legionella Pneumophila Infection
“In conclusion, our results show that a major cellular target of THC-induced immune suppression of Th1 immunity is the dendritic cell and that the drug attenuates polarizing function… THC… might be of use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus, and therefore might be in the class of anti-inflammatory drugs recognized to interfere with earlier stages of immunity by suppressing DC activation.

Role of Cannabinoid Receptors In Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppression of IL-12p40 In Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected With Legionella Pneumophila
These results suggest that THC-induced suppression of serum IL-12 is partly due to a suppression of IL-12 production by dendritic cells and that G(i) signaling and cannabinoid receptors, but not TRPV1, are involved in this suppressive effect.

The Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol As In Vivo Chemoattractant For Dendritic Cells and Adjuvant For Th1 Response To A Soluble Protein
The decision-making mechanisms that determine the choice of the appropriate effector immune response to a microbial challenge are poorly understood. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), injected intradermally in mice together with a soluble protein and a T helper-2 (Th2) priming Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonist during primary immunization, shifts the memory response to the Th1 type. As 2-AG may be induced in tissues by various stimuli at concentrations similar to that used in our study, this evidence might be of a wide-ranging pathophysiological relevance.

Presence and Regulation of the Endocannabinoid System In Human Dendritic Cells
Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, have been detected in several blood immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, basophils and lymphocytes. However, their presence in dendritic cells, which play a key role in the initiation and development of the immune response, has never been investigated.  These findings demonstrate for the first time that the endogenous cannabinoid system is present in human dendritic cells and can be regulated by cell activation.

The Endocannabinoid System: Mechanisms Behind Metabolic Homeostasis and Imbalance
The endocannabinoid system: mechanisms behind metabolic homeostasis and imbalance…EC agonists and receptors have been identified in the brain, liver, and peripheral adipose tissue, and the EC system is known to affect metabolism in these areas and others through neuromodulatory signals. Meal size, body weight, and numerous metabolic factors such as triglyceride and cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance can be affected via the EC system.

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Modulates Antigen Processing By Macrophages
THC differentially modulates the capacity of macrophages to process antigens that is necessary for the activation of CD4+ T cells… delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol modulates antigen processing by macrophages.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Key To Cannabis’ Healing Success

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 60’s science has been hard at work trying to unlock the mysteries surrounding cannabis and the interaction of the human body.  For thousands of years cannabis has been used for medicinal, religious and recreation purposes.  Below you will see studies that explain a little as to why cannabis works the way it does within our system.  You will see how CB1 and   CB2 receptors interact with cannabis and how they play a key role in its therapeutic properties.   I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth please feel free to share ~ Cherry Girl

The CB(2) Cannabinoid Receptor Controls Myeloid Progenitor Trafficking: Involvement In the Pathogenesis of An Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis
These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Gene In T Cells By Cannabinoids
Effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated by two types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. In this report, we investigated whether CBs regulate gene expression of their cognate receptors in T cells and studied underlying mechanisms in CD4+ Jurkat T cells.  In summary, up-regulation of CB1 in T lymphocytes in response to CBs themselves may facilitate or enhance the various immunomodulatory effects related to CBs.

Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids In A Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids may act as immunosuppressive compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders… Overall, the data presented may have potential therapeutic implications in demyelinating pathologies such as MS; in particular, the involvement of cannabinoid receptor CB2 would enable nonpsychoactive therapy suitable for long-term use.

The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein
These results further support the proposed role of the CB1 receptor in controlling intraocular pressure, helping to explain the antiglaucoma properties of marijuana.

CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) From Various Donor Types
Marijuana cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, are G protein-coupled receptors… expressed in brain as well as cells of the periphery…results suggest that CBR expression is relatively constant across the human population.

Cannabinoid-receptor 1 Null Mice Are Susceptible To Neurofilament Damage and Caspase 3 Activation
Administered cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate signs of CNS inflammatory disease in a number of animal models, including allergic encephalomyelitis. More recently, neuroprotective actions have been attributed to activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in a number of in vitro and in vivo models…The data presented further strengthen the hypothesis of neuroprotection elicited via cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling.

Detailed Characterization of CB2 Receptor Protein Expression In Peripheral Blood Immune Cells From Healthy Human Volunteers Using Flow Cytometry
These data provide the first detailed analysis of CB2 protein levels in blood leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and identifies the cell types which could be targeted with CB-mimetic drugs in humans.

Cannabinoid-Induced Immune Suppression and Modulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells
The study of marijuana cannabinoid biology has led to many important discoveries in neuroscience and immunology. These studies have uncovered a new physiological system, the endocannabinoid system, which operates in the regulation of not only brain function but also the regulation of the immune system. Studies examining the effect of cannabinoid-based drugs on immunity have shown that many cellular and cytokine mechanisms are suppressed by these agents leading to the hypothesis that these drugs may be of value in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this report, we review current information on cannabinoid ligand and receptor biology, mechanisms involved in immune suppression by cannabinoids with emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, and preclinical and clinical models analyzing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs.

Immunoregulation of A CB2 Receptor Agonist In A Murine Model of NeuroAIDS
Chronic HIV-1 infection commonly affects behavioral, cognitive, and motor functions in the infected human host and is commonly referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)…Our results support the notion that CB2 receptor agonists may be a viable therapeutic candidate for HAND.

Anandamide Prior To Sensitization Increases Cell-Mediated Immunity In Mice
The endocannabinoid system has become a topic of great interest in pharmacology due to its remarkable distribution in mammal organisms and capacity to play a modulatory role on several physiological systems, including modulation of immunity. Many studies have shown that administration of cannabinoids causes inhibitory effects on immune cells, including decreased proliferation and antigen-presenting cell (APC) co-stimulatory activity. In contrast, other groups have shown that some cannabinoids might present stimulatory actions on macrophage activity and T cell activation…Anandamide prior to sensitization increases cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Endogenous Modulators of Synaptic Transmission: Cannabinoid Regulation In the Supraoptic Nucleus
The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) are a major source of both systemic and central release of the neurohypophyseal peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP).  Further study of eCB signalling in the SON, including its interaction with AVP neurons, promises to extend our understanding of the synaptic regulation of SON physiological function.

 

 

Citizens Drive, Consume Alcohol, Use Tobacco And Take Prescriptions So Why Not Cannabis?

With all the heated debates over cannabis legalization going on around the country one would wonder why there is so much buzz over a plant.  Cannabis, specifically medical cannabis, has been at the forefront of discussions all around the country.  The federal government has continued its harsh stance against legalization despite the mounting evidence of its benefits, as backed up by the Vice President’s actions in Latin America this week.

We have looked at the issue of legalization in many lights but one way that has not been discussed is that of the individual.  Legally we are given responsibility for our actions and our bodies when we drive, consume alcohol, tobacco or prescriptions despite deaths each year.  Most of us are reasonably responsible adults who are depended upon to carry out many important tasks and make many important decisions including raising children.  Doctors are entrusted with our lives including cancer treatments and brain surgeries but they are not trusted to prescribe cannabis medicinally.

We are each supposed to be responsible for ourselves including the care of our bodies.  With this it would naturally be assumed that one would also have control of what goes into one’s body and what treatments or relaxations methods one chooses to use.  Americans range from lawyers, doctors, congresspeople, CEO s, mothers or any other law abiding citizens.  Why are we not trusted to make a responsible decision when it comes to cannabis?

This leaves one to wonder in regards to cannabis when did the government decide we were incapable of making such a personal decision?  When did they decide that they know more about whats better for each of us individually than we do ourselves?  It is insulting when you look at it in this light; that the government does not feel that each of us are capable of self-control.  As a parent I am insulted that they question my parenting abilities to raise a competent person capable of choosing wisely for themselves including refraining from letting cannabis “take over their lives” as the government wants us to believe happens all the time.  In reality each of us are capable of deciding how to, when to and how much to use cannabis if at all.  Each of us are capable of researching and talking with our doctors to see if cannabis is right for us.

The government allows drivers 16 and older to get behind the wheel of a car despite the harm drivers cause all across the nation.  There are over 40,000 deaths a year as a result of vehicles and their drivers.  People now more than ever are distracted with texting, videos, talking, browsing and more making them even more dangerous.

The government also allows for adults 21 and older to consume alcohol even though it causes over 750,000 deaths a year, domestic violence, rise in crime rates, child abuse, liver damage and many more tragedies.  The government feels that you can responsibly use and monitor your consumption of alcohol even though there are over 17 million alcoholics in the US.

The government allow adults 18 and older to use tobacco even after concrete evidence that it causes cancer and death not only to the user but those around them that are exposed.  Cigarettes have been linked to lung cancer, emphysema and more.  Each year it is estimated that 443,000 die from tobacco related issues.

Each year over 100,000 Americans die from medication by overdose, interactions or other medication related issues.  Citizens are entrusted with sometimes fatal medications monitored only by themselves and some doctor supervision.  Doctors on the whole still do not have sophisticated systems between themselves and pharmacies to prevent drug interactions or overdose.

There are many larger responsibilities we handle than a personal choice of using cannabis or not.  Even legally we are given much larger responsibilities so with that in mind the obvious question is why would using this plant in a responsible manner not be one our responsibilities as well?

Despite all the mounting evidence of the beneficial properties of cannabis and the fact there has never been a reported case of overdose, the government refuses to recognize that Americans are responsible enough and should have control over their decision concerning cannabis.  The decision to use or not to use cannabis is a personal choice and one that should be used with facts in hand and government nowhere in sight.

Although cannabis does not cause death, people still do.  People need to live up to that responsibility by using cannabis wisely and responsibly.  We shouldn’t have to prove anything to the government but if we are going to change things in this country being a good example is the first step.  This includes responsibly using cannabis and restricting access to children.

Educating others is the second step.  We need to show others that cannabis is not the evil drug that the government has made it out to be but instead a healing plant.  It can be used responsibly to wind down at the end of a long day much like wine or beer or in more potent version medicinally for patients.  In the end this is just a plant and one that can be used naturally without changing its form which can not be said for many other drugs legal or not.

Educating others is key to our success in legalization.  Others need to know the truth and I encourage all to go out and seek the truth.  Learn the real facts of cannabis.  Then contact your representative and ask for their support in repealing cannabis prohibition.  There are several pending legislation all over the country.  Help 2012 be a monumental year, one that we reach our goal!

American Medical Association 1937 Defense For Cannabis Use

Below is the defense given from the American Medical Association in 1937.

American Medical Association Opposes the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937

American Medical Association
Bureau of Legal Medicine and Legislation
Chicago, July 10, 1937
Hon. Pat Harrison
Chairman, Committee on Finance, United States Senate
Washington D.C.

SIR: I have been instructed by the board of trustees of the American Medical Association to protest on behalf of the association against the enactment in its present form of so much of H.R. 6906 as relates to the medicinal use of cannabis and its preparations and derivatives. The act is entitled “An Act to impose an occupational excise tax upon certain dealers in marihuana, to impose a transfer tax upon certain dealings in marihuana, and to safeguard the revenue therefrom by registry and recording.”

Cannabis and its preparations and derivatives are covered in the bill by the term “marihuana” as that term is defined in section 1, paragraph (b). There is no evidence, however, that the medicinal use of these drugs has caused or is causing cannabis addiction. As remedial agents, they are used to an inconsiderable extent, and the obvious purpose and effect of this bill is to impose so many restrictions on their use as to prevent such use altogether. Since the medicinal use of cannabis has not caused and is not causing addiction, the prevention of the use of the drug for medicinal purposes can accomplish no good end whatsoever. How far it may serve to deprive the public of the benefits of a drug that on further research may prove to be of substantial value, it is impossible to foresee.

The American Medical Association has no objection to any reasonable regulation of the medicinal use of cannabis and its preparations and derivatives. It does protest, however, against being called upon to pay a special tax, to use special order forms in order to procure the drug, to keep special records concerning its professional use and to make special returns to the Treasury Department officials, as a condition precedent to the use of cannabis in the practice of medicine. in the several States, all separate and apart from the taxes, order forms, records, and reports required under the Harrison Narcotics Act with reference to opium and coca leaves and their preparations and derivatives.

If the medicinal use of cannabis calls for Federal legal regulation further than the legal regulation that now exists, the drug can without difficulty be covered under the provisions of the Harrison Narcotics Act by a suitable amendment. By such a procedure the professional use of cannabis may readily be controlled as effectively as are the professional uses of opium and coca leaves, with less interference with professional practice and less cost and labor on the part of the Treasury Department.

It has been suggested that the inclusion of cannabis into the Harrison Narcotics Act would jeopardize the constitutionality of that act, but that suggestion has been supported by no specific statements of its legal basis or citations of legal authorities.

Wm. C. Woodward,
Legislative Counsel {American Medical Assn}


 

Breaking News: Cashy Hyde Free From Cancer

The Cashy Hyde case has been one that has been closely followed by many in the cannabis community that believe in the healing power of cannabis.  Below is the breaking news released yesterday.

On Wednesday, February 22, 2012 Cash Michael Hyde was in Salt Lake City for a follow up MRI to check the status of his brain tumor. A PNET brain tumor he has been battling for almost 2 years.

For the second time in a row, Cashy has beat his tumor, and is in remission.

The Boy of Steel is Cancer Free!

How many people do you know that beat cancer once, nonetheless twice?

At THREE years of age?

Congratulations and hugest of blessing upon his parents Mike and Kalli for being the strong parents they are, and fighting so diligently to save their son’s life with an alternative option.

Thank heavens for the cannabis oil that saves Cashy’s life.

Be vigilant in your duties Pioneers……your efforts are important to people just like Cashy and his family EVERY day! Act responsibly! Keep up the great work!

And to all the politicians out there…….please support the Hyde family, and many other families out there just like them.

We are here to save children’s lives, not take them away.

Love and blessings to all…..I’m off to celebrate on the ride back to Montana with the Hyde’s.

I love them all so very much. Better be a BIG box of Kleenex on board as we will all be so HAPPY!

For more information please view original source or visit The Cash Hyde Foundation.

Children’s Cancer and Cannabis

The words children and cannabis sound very uncomfortable to many but to parents who want to see their child thrive, for some, it sounds like a prayer answered.  It is a very controversial subject but a very important one to discuss.  In the United States over 10,000 children under the age of 15 are diagnosed with cancer each year.  One of the most famous cases of a child with cancer being treated with cannabis is Cashy Hyde.  Many know the story of how the frail little boy bounced back with the help of Rick Simpson Oil.  Below you will see studies on how cannabis has been looked at for childhood cancers.  I encourage all to do their own research and seek out the truth! ~ Cherry Girl

An Efficient New Cannabinoid Antiemetic in Pediatric Oncology
An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology…Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC), a cannabinoid with lower psychotropic potency than the main Cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), was administered to eight children, aged 3-13 years with various hematologic cancers, treated with different antineoplastic drugs… The THC treatment started two hours before each antineoplastic treatment… Vomiting was completely prevented.

Cannabis-Induced Cytotoxicity in Leukemic Cell Lines: The Role of the Cannabinoid Receptors and the MAPK Pathway
Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active metabolite of cannabis… We investigated the role of the CB-Rs (cannabinoid receptors) in mediating apoptosis (cell death) in 3 leukemic cell lines… We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis (cell death/cell suicide)…Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway.

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of P22phox and Nox4 Expression
2006: “Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis (cell death) in human leukemia cells… results from this study reveal that cannabidiol, acting through CB2 and regulation of Nox4 and p22(phox) expression, may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.”— I believe cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid from cannabis.

The CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Signals Apoptosis Via Ceramide-Dependent Activation of the Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway
2006: “Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor… the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive. Here we used the human leukemia cell line Jurkat-that expresses CB2 as the unique CB receptor-to investigate this mechanism…results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis (cell death).

Medical Marijuana: Should Minors Have the Same Rights As Adults?
“Failure to give an effective therapy to seriously ill patients, either adults or children, violates the core principles of both medicine and ethics. Medically, to deny physicians the right to prescribe to their patients a therapy that relieves pain and suffering violates the physician-patient relationship. Ethically, failure to offer an available therapy that has proven to be effective violates the basic ethical principle of nonmaleficence, which prohibits the infliction of harm, injury, or death and is related to the maxim primum non nocere (‘above all, or first, do no harm’)… Therefore, in the patient’s best interest, patients and parents/surrogates, have the right to request medical marijuana under certain circumstances and physicians have the duty to disclose medical marijuana as an option and prescribe it when appropriate. The right to an effective medical therapy, whose benefits clearly outweigh the burdens, must be available to all patients including children. To deny children the use of medical marijuana when appropriate is a grave injustice which violates the basic foundational beliefs of both medicine and… ” — ethics?

It Is Time, This Is Our Moment

Throughout history there are those moments in time that forever change our course.  Great moments where heroes stood up, fought back, and changed our destinies.  Many led ordinary lives but in that moment found the courage to do what’s right even in the face of adversity.

I believe we are at a very unique point in time.  All over the globe are seeing people wake up to the idea of a more involved society, one that gives them a voice.  We are starting to see the corruption that has been allowed to take hold.  Thanks to instant and world-wide communications we all can share an abundance of information.  The message is clear: People want freedom!

The thought of freedom of self is spreading.  People realize they have a choice.  They can be free to be responsible for themselves and their government.  With God-given free will people are seeking out the truths.  One truth that has frequently come into the spotlight, all over the globe is cannabis.  People are starting to see through the “reefer madness” and seek out the truths not only of its healing powers but of its actual harms.

The U.S. government has wasted trillions of tax-payer’s dollars pursuing a plant put here on earth for humans to use.  Beyond all its myriad of health benefits including exciting research pointing towards curing cancer, cannabis in its natural form can be looked at in the same light as drinking a beer or having a glass of wine.  Many Americans drink at the end of their day to unwind and relax from the day’s activities.  Millions of Americans use cannabis in the same way including using forms such as oils, juices, edibles and tinctures.

It is time to start taking a more serious look at what the real dangers are of cannabis prohibition.  Cannabis does not cause death, is more beneficial and is less harmful than alcohol which is a legal drug for Americans 21 and older.  We need to look at the practicality of prohibition on a national level. This is a serious issue that has devastating effects on millions of Americans.  An issue that breaks up families, bankrupts countless people, destroys American rights, costs trillions of tax-payer dollars and ruins society demands that we take a serious look at this situation and what its doing to this country.

These are the moments that history is made of.  Moments that show of courage and strength.  Times were we came together and fought back.  We need to make our voices heard loud and clear: Its time to talk about the end of prohibition!  We need to tell our representatives that its time to reschedule cannabis and repeal the prohibition.  We need to educate others on the truths.  When people see the truth we will have freedom.  This is our moment will you have the courage to change history?

Why the Prohibition of Cannabis Should End

We are witnessing the emergence of an oppressed part of society.  A community that had repeatedly been laughed at and pushed aside.  But in the last decade we have seen many breakthroughs and milestones reached.   We have also seen a very aggressive push back from the government on the fight for legalization.

The United States was attacked on Sept. 11, 2001 and since then laws and law enforcement agencies have changed.  Many expected changes but we did not expect our liberties to be eroded so much.  We have seen the militarization of local law enforcement increase with urgency.  We have seen the actions of these agencies change.

No community recognizes this more, surprisingly, than the cannabis community.  In 2011 alone thousands received threat letters from the DOJ.  Families, patients and caregivers were violently raided even though they were complying with state law.  Much of the legislation that was aimed at terrorists were actually used on Americans in the War on Drugs.  This costly war that has been going on for decades is not only a complete failure, it has misinformed millions and destroyed society.

They have squandered trillions of tax-payer dollars on this War on Drugs.  They have not only created a black market but allowed it to flourish.  Prohibition of alcohol created the rise in organized crime and prominent figures like Al Capone.  We saw prices go up, prescriptions for alcohol increase and speakeasies or clubs abound.  We have seen the same thing happen for over 75 years with cannabis with more recent increase in doctor recommendations, dispensaries in legal states and the head of a drug cartel listed on Forbes fortune 400 list.

With alcohol prohibition we saw a quicker end but we still saw the devastating effects it had in a short time.  We have had a longer period of time to take a look at the societal, emotional, economic, medical, environmental and many other impacts of prohibition and legalization.  For over 75 years we have seen families torn apart, parents lose children, people lose their wealth, their battle with their illness or their freedom.  We have seen the government tell us how cannabis is just as bad a heroin, worse than tobacco, alcohol and cocaine.  They have told us that cannabis holds no medical value.

With today’s access to information from all over the world and from many different sources many people should quickly see through the many lies of reefer madness.  There are countless medical studies backing up the medical potential of cannabis.  Last year the cannabis plants sativa and indica were genetically mapped enabling science to pinpoint the cannabinoids necessary to start using it as a therapy and cure.

With so much new data discovered, exciting breakthroughs on the horizon and the improved knowledge of society we too will see an end to cannabis prohibition.  Prohibition does not make sense as a policy or as a way to control society.  People are born with God-given free will and should be allowed to exercise it.  2012 can prove to be a momentous year if we make our voices heard.  Contact your representative today in support of legalization, rescheduling and responsible regulation.

How Technology and Medicine Are Coming Together To Legitimize Cannabis Use

In the last decade alone we have seen many advancements in technology as well as medicine.  We have seen the cell phone and subsequently smart phones and tablets held in the hands of the masses.  We have seen the access to information through use of the internet become available to the majority of the world even to far reaching places.  We have witnessed the advances in technology spill over to other industries such as medicine enabling breakthroughs.

Today with the help of technology the science, medical, technology and cannabis community are coming together.  We see doctors and scientists sharing information and ideas working collectively to cure and develop better therapies.  We see more informed patients who are working with doctors that have more access to their medical treatments (with electronic files implemented) helping to avoid the hundreds of millions of Americans that are sent to the hospital from drug reactions.

We have seen the technology that doctors use advance quickly enabling for a more pinpointed understanding of the ailment or even a patient’s specific body.  We have technology today that allows for the DNA sequencing of a cancer tumor, human and, thanks to Kevin McKernan and his team; cannabis Sativa and Indica.

In the Czech Republic they have been making advancements in the use of cannabis for medical use.  At the Konopi Je Lek (Cannabis Is Medicine) Clinic they have been working on exact strain-dependent therapeutic dosages of THC, CBD and CBN.  With the mapping of the cannabis plant along with the ability to map a human we can potentially have a quick way to match the right Cannabinoids for their particular ailment which is very exciting news.

There are millions of Americans that use cannabis in conjunction with their medication or instead of.  Many who know that cannabis works for them may not actually know why.  With the advancements in technology and medicine giving us those answers it is also making way for us to be able to better understand and therefore apply this for better therapy results.  Currently it can at times be a guessing game when trying to find the right strain or combination thereof when using cannabis therapy.  In the future you could make tinctures customized for your body.

Technology, Medicine, Science and Cannabis Community are showing people that cannabis therapy is beyond just the smoked version that comes up so frequently in debates.  Today’s cannabis therapy is far more advanced.  With British pharmaceutical products such Sativex (cannabis plant derived non-synthetic) that are seeking FDA approval it lends even more creditably to the medical uses of cannabis.  Many can see the future of cannabis as a therapy that will have legitimacy and will be taken seriously.

Just a few months ago we saw national support for medical legalization at 77%.  With more credible information available to the masses we see a shift in perception.  16 states along with D.C have enacted medical marijuana laws as well as several other states that have medical initiatives; with Washington, California and Colorado’s initiatives calling for legalization for adults over 21.

With the nation hurting financially it is time to look at our priorities.  So far the government has spent over $2 trillion on the war on drugs that has proven to be futile.  We need to look at reform and especially rescheduling cannabis.  This will only be accomplished if the people speak up.  We need to recognize that cannabis has medical value and that it should be decision made between a patient and doctor not the government.  Contact your local representative today and express your support for rescheduling and responsible legislation.  Many states have groups like NORML and ASA that are working on legislation so be sure to see if there is a current proposal in your state.  With everyone coming together we can see a bright future for the cannabis community as well as the nation.

Is A Win On the Horizon For the Cannabis Community?

When our parents took a stand against the government, the establishment, they had to grab the attention of the media to be heard.  They protested, burned bras and held demonstrations.  They too experienced police brutality but much of that was not covered.  They lived in a time when their generations was going through a transformation, a revolution.  As we look around today its hard not to draw parallels with where we are today.  We see critical shifts in society that give us hope for the future.  Some of these changes can be attributed to parental influence, more availability of information and a growth in enlightened thinking and perception.

The older generations who were indoctrinated with reefer madness are decreasing and we are now seeing the baby boomer generation head into the golden years.  Older Americans are finding that cannabis has come a long way from the “hippie” days and can be beneficial with ailments they are faced with today.  Discovering new methods such as edibles, tinctures and capsules spark a curiosity and give credibility to medicinal value for them.

We start to see a new generation emerge from this earlier shift in thinking and perception of the world resulting in a much more open-minded group.  With this shift in thinking we see more acceptance of non-traditional thinking, lifestyles and medical treatment options.   Along with the parental influence we see a huge influx of influence from technology and the information it provides.  This emerging group of people can search out for themselves the truth about cannabis including medicinal value.  People can connect with others, share information and even look up published medical studies.

Alternative, in some aspects, have almost become the norm.  Even something as simple as a grocery bag, ten years ago, would mostly have been used by “hippies” but now, at least on the west coast, it has become the norm.  With more education about our food and our planet we see more people choosing organic.  We are also seeing a sharp rise in acceptance and use of alternative medicine.  Polls in 2011 showed support for medical marijuana by Americans at 77%.

In the last decade we have seen a national conversation about cannabis educate and enlighten countless people about the truths and fictions surrounding it.  We have seen 16 states and the District of Columbia enact medical marijuana laws and 6 states that have regulated legalization ballot initiatives underway for 2012.  With all this progress and exposure to the topic it has brought our society to a catalyst-like moment in history.  We see the struggle that has gone on in this country with prohibition for over 75 years.  This will not have the same outcome as earlier battles, this time is different.

The new life that has impassioned the movement and helped it to gain steam, especially in the last few years, has been remarkable.  We have farther to go and still need help from all of those who believe in their right of freedom of choice and free will.  Using our voice to stand up for whats right.  Just as we saw in earlier generations we too need to stand against the establishment and fight for our rights.  We should have a natural option.  The cannabis community has been ignored, has been laughed at, as we saw heightened last year fought with and now with hopeful hearts we hope to see a win on the horizon.

Video – Cannabis Botany of Desire

Short 8 minute video on cannabis and our Endocannabinoid system.

Breaking News: Louisiana’s Neti Pot Brain-Eating Amoeba and Cannabis

This week Louisiana issued a warning about using tap water and neti pots.  The amoeba, formally known as the Naegleria fowleri, can be fatal when it is introduced into the body through the nasal cavity.  It must enter the body through the nasal cavity; it cannot be ingested through drinking water.  It is recommended that neti pot users strictly use sterile water and not tap water.

Susceptibility of Naegleria fowleri to A9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
Nature holds many mysteries and one is how this brain eating amoeba is susceptible to THC.  Although it does not stop their movement it does inhibit growth of the pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri. THC is amoebostatic at 5 to 50 micrograms/ml. delta 9-THC prevents enflagellation and encystment.  When there are concentrations of A9-THC. N. fowleri will not grow in standard mammalian cell cultures.

Finding Pain Relief In Cannabis

This last weekend was supposed to be a mini-vacation while I Christmas shopped.  I was to stay the night in a hotel and I envisioned a fun day looking at all the Christmas displays.  In reality I was in so much pain all week I was just hoping I would be able to make it to a few stores.  My entire body was in pain with a horrible headache that radiated through my upper body.  It was hard to be in the Christmas spirit.

Fortunately by Friday I had the opportunity to visit a dispensary and picked up a new strain I had only heard about.  When I got home I was able to use some of my medicine.  I have been testing out different strains for awhile now and most I have found will give me some pain relief or complete pain relief but only briefly.  When I used the new strain I got complete pain relief for hours.  I wanted to cry.

I realized that it has been the entire year that I have spent in pain.  The year has seem to fly by and I can not believe that it is December.  It feel like it should still be early fall and I have more time left in the year.  Each month I would research more medical studies, strain lists, talk with dispensary owners, read books and test out the strains myself in search of pain relief.  Some I found would give me the giggles, make me tired, make me sick, ease anxiety, help with insomnia and now finally give me full pain relief.

It was such a strange feeling being able to enjoy the moment without trying to ignore pain.I realized how long it had been since I felt this way.  Each day I get up feeling nauseous and then a headache will set in.  Sometimes they are dull and sometimes the pain is so bad its like seeing stars before you black out.  I have not found a prescription that fully takes away the pain, doesn’t give me horrible side effects or turns me into a zombie.  I have only found that in cannabis.

This year has been a long journey that I know is just begining.  I have learned so much about cannabis and have met so many wonderful people that are doing great things for the community.  Looking back over this year I am amazed at how much I know now.  All the reading and learning that I have done has ignited a fire in me that gives me passion about this subject.  I see so many people that are suffering, that like myself, have found pain relief in cannabis.  After getting a taste of what life without pain feels like I was suddenly brought back down to earth with the realization that it could all be taken away.

Currently in California, city by city, government is banning cannabis dispensaries because of the federal crackdown that happened this year.  Real people experiencing real pain not only have to brace themselves for daily life but for the realization that they very well could be without their pain relief.  They also must face the fact that their option may be going to the corner drug dealer where no questions are asked and its a gamble of what you are actually getting.

In the country we have a very heated debate on the size of the government. We have the federal government that is imposing its view on the states.  The citizens of California voted to allow for cannabis use by patients.  In 1996 most knew of cannabis use for cancer but at that time it was not publically known to help with many other illnesses.

Now in 2011, with ABC, NBC, CNN, FOX and many other mainstream media outlets as well as organizations like NORML speaking out about the many benefits of cannabis we have a more educated public.  We still hear how California is a joke because anyone can get a recommendation for cannabis.  The truth is that many people benefit from cannabis beyond those with cancer and AIDS.

Cannabis can help from a headache, to nausea, to body aches.  It can help with many different illnesses and modern science is confirming on a continual basis the new uses for cannabis.  Many different diseases that plague millions of Americans are being treated in labs around the world with cannabis.  Scientists are hard at work to unlock the cure for cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, obesity, migraines, to name a few and many are finding that it may be cannabis.

Many people are starting to see the harm that prescriptions are starting to have on our bodies, our society and our government.  When looking at the side effects and the drug recalls that are regulated through the FDA we wonder why a natural plant is so evil.  We are now dealing with big drug companies controlling legislation and officials in our government.  We see users of a natural plant in its natural form imprisoned.   We see families broken up and tax payer money used against them.  We also see a rise in over use of prescription drugs and addiction and what that is doing to society.

We see what the War on Drugs has done to our society as well.  Not only has it broken families, forced those arrested to a lower standard of life but also burdened the American people with a costly system of punishment for use of a natural plant. With the raids in California we saw stories of children being awakened by DEA agents busting through their front doors and shoving a gun in their parent’s face.

We also see the black market side of things heating up.  There needs to be a balance and restoring of order.  Responsible adults should be allowed to make their own medical decisions for themselves and their family.  We should not have the federal government or any government dictating how to treat our illnesses or our bodies.  We need the black market taken down and cleaned up and the legitimate legal market allowed to flourish.

The cannabis community wants to be out in the open legally operating and paying taxes.  We want a system that supports responsible use and regulation.  We want to know that we can have safe access to safe medicine.  We want to know that we have a reliable legitimate source of pain relief.  Every citizen has the right to treat their body as they see fit. They also should have the option to treat their body with natural herbs.  As a human on this Earth we have the right to use what the planet gives us.  We have the right to use nature responsibly.

It is time that we start being a more courageous nation and stand up for what is right.  We need to voice our opinions and start working together to solve these issues.  Turn off the TV, look away from the IPhone and start talking to one another to begin the repair work for this country.  We need responsibility put back on the shoulders of the American people.  We need to roll up our sleeves and get the job done.  The government is not the answer, we are.  2012 is only weeks away how will you make a difference?

How Cannabis Prohibition Effects All of Us

Unraveling the web of lies and corruption tied to cannabis can be a very daunting task.  Its no wonder that the government has taken a sweeping action all across the board.  Political, racial, economic  status or geography can all play a role when the government attacks.  Many do not realize how they are impacted by the administrations view on cannabis.  Prohibition does not create a safer world, ironically it creates the opposite.

Americans love their vices with cannabis being a favorite choice for many but prohibition has made it tougher to obtain as well as intimidating with its stiff punishments.  The cost of the judicial process, incarceration, loss of jobs and all other residual effects is astounding!  These costs come at the taxpayer’s expense.

Americans instead have turned to prescription drugs many that have serious side effects. They say that sham doctors give out recommendations for cannabis to anyone but that is exactly what is happening with prescription drugs.  Americans consume 80% of the worlds pain killers.  These drugs like hydrocodone or oxycodone are just as addictive as heroin and they are legally prescribed.  In 2008 15,000 Americans died from legal pain killers.

After learning about the benefits of cannabis many Americans have switched from prescription drugs to medical cannabis with improvements to their quality of life.  Its not just switching one addiction for another but rather finding a natural option for pain relief.  It can help with not only the pain but possibly help in curing the source.  Many are finding that their condition improves with cannabis use and they can stop taking multiple prescriptions.

Cannabis can be used in many ways.  Ingesting cannabis can be used for spiritual, social, or medical purposes.  Sharing a pipe with friends can be a very enjoyable experience and can bond people together.  Tribes have used it for thousands of years spiritually and socially.  For thousands of years the cannabis plant has been used to treat many illnesses.  The hemp seed also has nutritional  value and is some of the best protein you can consume; a great option for vegetarians.

The cannabis plant itself has many ecological benefits as well.  It can be grown Eco-friendly with all parts of the plant being used; some of which provide material for clothes, rope and paper.  It would be a good replacement for a paper source with cannabis yielding more paper from the same acreage as one would from trees. It also can be regrown in 6 months with no harm done to the earth.

The social and economic impacts reverberate throughout our communities.  We all suffer from the effects of cannabis prohibition even if you do not consume it.   When law enforcement is more focused on a plant they are less focused on more serious crimes. When a loved one is suffering from pain and they are faced with the choice of relief from cannabis or constant pain it will effect you.  Cannabis patients are not just hippies getting high all day.  They are someones son, daughter, mother, father, grandmother, someone’s loved one.  They are a free American citizen, some of which are faced everyday with pain.  We all deserve a choice in our treatment without fear from the government. Imagine instead a world where we would be free to grow our own Eco-friendly source of medicine, clothing material, paper, spiritual and social aid.  One where law enforcement and the judicial system were prosecuting actual criminals.

How the law is used to destroy equality and protect the powerful
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NCoR1YEGgY&feature=share

A Natural Choice For Pain Management

Most people do not know what it is like to be in pain every day but for the millions of Americans that do it can be difficult to live with.  When you wake up and go to sleep in pain it wears on you.  It can cause depression to set in.  When the pain is constant people seek out relief but sometimes find there is no easy answer.

Many seek help from traditional medicine only to find that it is costly, makes symptoms worse or causes unwanted side effects.   Pain management is a booming industry.  America is addicted to pain medications.  15,000 people in 2008 died from overdoses of legal prescription painkillers — more than died from heroin and cocaine overdoses combined.

But there is a natural way to relieve pain and modern science is slowly figuring out what millions already know.  Cannabis is not a new designer drug but has been around for thousands of years.  It was once used medicinally for a myriad of reasons.  With prohibitions for the last 75 years it has been difficult for science to unravel the mysteries.  Below you will see studies that show how cannabis can help with pain management.  Please Share with truth about the CURE!

Cannabinoid Receptors and Pain
The discovery of this ‘endocannabinoid system’ has prompted the development of a range of novel cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, including several that show marked selectivity for CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. The endocannabinoid system has physiological and/or pathophysiological roles in the modulation of pain.”
Cannabinoid receptors and pain.
Pertwee RG. SourceDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, Aberdeen, UK. rgp@aberdeen.ac.uk

Abstract
Mammalian tissues contain at least two types of cannabinoid receptor, CB(1) and CB(2), both coupled to G proteins. CB(1) receptors are expressed mainly by neurones of the central and peripheral nervous system whereas CB(2) receptors occur centrally and peripherally in certain non-neuronal tissues, particularly in immune cells. The existence of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors has also been demonstrated. The discovery of this ‘endocannabinoid system’ has prompted the development of a range of novel cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, including several that show marked selectivity for CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. It has also been paralleled by a renewed interest in cannabinoid-induced antinociception. This review summarizes current knowledge about the ability of cannabinoids to produce antinociception in animal models of acute pain as well as about the ability of these drugs to suppress signs of tonic pain induced in animals by nerve damage or by the injection of an inflammatory agent. Particular attention is paid to the types of pain against which cannabinoids may be effective, the distribution pattern of cannabinoid receptors in central and peripheral pain pathways and the part that these receptors play in cannabinoid-induced antinociception. The possibility that antinociception can be mediated by cannabinoid receptors other than CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, for example CB(2)-like receptors, is also discussed as is the evidence firstly that one endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, produces antinociception through mechanisms that differ from those of other types of cannabinoid, for example by acting on vanilloid receptors, and secondly that the endocannabinoid system has physiological and/or pathophysiological roles in the modulation of pain.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11164622 

The Future of Cannabinoids As Analgesic Agents: A Pharmacologic, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Overview
Cannabinoid receptor agonists and/or molecules that affect the modulation of endocannabinoid synthesis, metabolism, and transport may, in the future, offer extremely valuable tools for the treatment of a number of currently intractable disorders.”— So, in the future, cannabis will be an “extremely valuable tool for treating a number of currently intractable disorders.
The future of cannabinoids as analgesic agents: a pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic overview. McCarberg BH, Barkin RL. SourceFamily Medicine Kaiser Permanente, Escondido, California, USA. Bill.H.Mccarberg@kp.org

Abstract
For thousands of years, physicians and their patients employed cannabis as a therapeutic agent. Despite this extensive historical usage, in the Western world, cannabis fell into disfavor among medical professionals because the technology available in the 1800s and early 1900s did not permit reliable, standardized preparations to be developed. However, since the discovery and cloning of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) in the 1990s, scientific interest in the area has burgeoned, and the complexities of this fascinating receptor system, and its endogenous ligands, have been actively explored. Recent studies reveal that cannabinoids have a rich pharmacology and may interact with a number of other receptor systems-as well as with other cannabinoids-to produce potential synergies. Cannabinoids-endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids-affect numerous bodily functions and have indicated efficacy of varying degrees in a number of serious medical conditions. Nevertheless, despite promising preclinical and early clinical data, particularly in the areas of inflammation and nociception, development challenges abound. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other CB1 receptor agonists can have an undesirable CNS impact, and, in many cases, dose optimization may not be realizable before onset of excessive side effects. In addition, complex botanically derived cannabinoid products must satisfy the demanding criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Association’s approval process. Recent agency guidance suggests that these obstacles are not insurmountable, although cannabis herbal material (“medical marijuana”) may present fatal uncertainties of quality control and dosage standardization. Therefore, formulation, composition, and delivery system issues will affect the extent to which a particular cannabinoid product may have a desirable risk-benefit profile and acceptable abuse liability potential. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and/or molecules that affect the modulation of endocannabinoid synthesis, metabolism, and transport may, in the future, offer extremely valuable tools for the treatment of a number of currently intractable disorders. Further research is warranted to explore the therapeutic potential of this area.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890938

Role of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Pain and (Painful) Spasticity
In chronic pain and (painful) spasticity, an increasing number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have shown the efficacy of cannabinoids. Patients with unsatisfactory response to other methods of pain therapy and who were characterized by failed stress adaptation particularly benefited from treatment with cannabinoids. Different methods of administration and other types of cannabinoids, such as endocannabinoid modulators, should be tested in future trials.
Role of cannabinoids in the treatment of pain and (painful) spasticity.
Karst M, Wippermann S, Ahrens J. SourceDepartment of Anaesthesiology, Pain Clinic, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. karst.matthias@mh-hannover.de

Abstract
Both the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and its role in the control of pain and habituation to stress, as well as the significant analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects in animal studies, suggest the usefulness of cannabinoids in pain conditions. However, in human experimental or clinical trials, no convincing reduction of acute pain, which may be caused by a pronociceptive, ECS-triggered mechanism on the level of the spinal cord, has been demonstrated. In contrast, in chronic pain and (painful) spasticity, an increasing number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have shown the efficacy of cannabinoids, which is combined with a narrow therapeutic index. Patients with unsatisfactory response to other methods of pain therapy and who were characterized by failed stress adaptation particularly benefited from treatment with cannabinoids. None of the attempts to overcome the disadvantage of the narrow therapeutic index, either by changing the route of application or by formulating balanced cannabinoid preparations, have resulted in a major breakthrough. Therefore, different methods of administration and other types of cannabinoids, such as endocannabinoid modulators, should be tested in future trials.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21142261

The Role of Endocannabinoids in Pain Modulation and the Therapeutic Potential of Inhibiting Their Enzymatic Degradation
The EndoCANNABINOID SYSTEM modulates pain. Cannabinoids inhibit FAAH and MAGL.
The Role of Endocannabinoids in Pain Modulation and the Therapeutic Potential of Inhibiting their Enzymatic Degradation. Alvarez-Jaimes LJ, Palmer JA. SourceJohnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row,San Diego, CA 92121, USA. jpalmer9@its.jnj.co.

Abstract
The need for new pain therapies that provide greater relief without unwanted side-effects drives the search for new drug targets. The identification of endogenous lipid ligands for the two known cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)) has led to numerous studies investigating the role of these endocannabinoids in pain processes. The two most widely studied endocannabinoids are anandamide (AEA; arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2 AG), but there are also a number of structurally related endogenous lipid signaling molecules that are agonists at cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors. These lipid signaling molecules are not stored in synaptic vesicles, but are synthesized and released on-demand and act locally, as they are rapidly inactivated. This suggests that there may be therapeutic potential in modulating levels of these ligands to only have effects in active neural pathways, thereby reducing the potential for side-effects that result from widespread systemic cannabinoid receptor activation. One approach to modulate the levels and duration of action of these lipid signaling molecules is to target the enzymes responsible for their hydrolysis. The two main enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of these lipid signaling molecules are fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglyceride lipase (MGL). This article will discuss the role of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of pain and will review the current understanding of the properties of the hydrolytic enzymes and the recent advances in developing inhibitors for these targets, with particular relevance to the treatment of pain.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21466449

Cannabinoids For Pain Management
Cannabinoids have been used for thousands of years to provide relief from suffering. Adverse effects are not uncommon with cannabinoids, though most are not serious and self-limiting. In view of the limited effect size and low but not inconsequential risk of serious adverse events, cannabinoids should be employed as analgesics only when safer and more effective medication trials have failed, or as part of a multimodal treatment regimen-In other words: Cannabinoids, which are safe and effective for pain, should only be used after you’ve tried all of Big Phama’s failed drugs, or in combination with Big Pharma.
Cannabinoids for pain management. Thaler A, Gupta A, Cohen SP.
SourcePain Management Division, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 21029, USA.

Abstract
Cannabinoids have been used for thousands of years to provide relief from suffering, but only recently have they been critically evaluated in clinical trials. This review provides an in-depth examination of the evidence supporting cannabinoids in various pain states, along with an overview of potential adverse effects. In summary, there is strong evidence for a moderate analgesic effect in peripheral neuropathic and central pain conditions, and conflicting evidence for their use in nociceptive pain. For spasticity, most controlled studies demonstrate significant improvement. Adverse effects are not uncommon with cannabinoids, though most are not serious and self-limiting. In view of the limited effect size and low but not inconsequential risk of serious adverse events, cannabinoids should be employed as analgesics only when safer and more effective medication trials have failed, or as part of a multimodal treatment regimen.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508629

The Role of Central and Peripheral Cannabinoid1 Receptors In the Antihyperalgesic Activity of Cannabinoids In A Model of Neuropathic Pain 
These data show that cannabinoids are highly potent and efficacious antihyperalgesic agents in a model of neuropathic pain. This activity is likely to be mediated via an action in both the CNS and in the periphery.
The role of central and peripheral Cannabinoid1 receptors in the antihyperalgesic activity of cannabinoids in a model of neuropathic pain.
Fox A, Kesingland A, Gentry C, McNair K, Patel S, Urban L, James I.
SourceNovartis Institute for Medical Sciences, 5 Gower Place, WC1E 6BN, London, UK. alyson.fox@pharma.novartis.com

Abstract
We have examined the effects of cannabinoid agonists on hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain in the rat and investigated the possible sites of action. The antihyperalgesic activity of the cannabinoids was compared with their ability to elicit behavioural effects characteristic of central cannabinoid activity. WIN55,212-2 (0.3-10 mg kg(-1)), CP-55,940 (0.03-1 mg kg(-1)) and HU-210 (0.001-0.03 mg kg(-1)) were all active in a ‘tetrad’ of tests consisting of tail-flick, catalepsy, rotarod and hypothermia following subcutaneous administration, with a rank order of potency in each of HU-210 > CP-55,940 > WIN55,212-2. The effects of WIN55,212-2 in each assay were blocked by the Cannabinoid1 (CB1) antagonist SR141716A. In the partial sciatic ligation model of neuropathic pain WIN55,212-2, CP-55,940 and HU-210 produced complete reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia within 3 h of subcutaneous administration with D50 values of 0.52, 0.08 and 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively. In this model WIN55,212-2 was also effective against thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. WIN55,212-2 produced pronounced reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia following intrathecal administration that was blocked by the CB1 antagonist SR141716A. Following intraplantar administration into the ipsilateral hindpaw, WIN55,212-2 produced up to 70% reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia, although activity was also observed at high doses following injection into the contralateral paw. The antihyperalgesic effect of WIN55,212-2 injected into the ipsilateral paw was blocked by subcutaneously administered SR141716A, but was not affected by intrathecally administered SR141716A. These data show that cannabinoids are highly potent and efficacious antihyperalgesic agents in a model of neuropathic pain. This activity is likely to be mediated via an action in both the CNS and in the periphery.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11323130

 

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists As Analgesic Agents
Increasing data emerging from controlled clinical trials support an analgesic activity of cannabinoids. However, the psychotropic side effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol or synthetic derivatives essentially puts a brake on their use.”– In other words: Cannabinoids CURE pain, but we cannot have THe Cure because of the side-effects of THC, such as euphoria (feeling good), increased appetite, and temporary memory loss.
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor agonists as analgesic agents.
Fox A, Bevan S. SourceNovartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Chronic Pain Unit, 5 Gower Place, London WC1E 6BS, UK. alyson.fox@.novartis.com

Abstract
Increasing data emerging from controlled clinical trials support an analgesic activity of cannabinoids. However, the psychotropic side effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol or synthetic derivatives essentially puts a brake on their use, possibly limiting the degree of analgesia that can be achieved as well as providing regulatory hurdles. Animal studies show that although these side effects are mediated via central cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptors, the analgesic activity in chronic pain states may be mediated via spinal CB(1) and potentially CB(2) receptors, as well as peripheral CB(1) and CB2 receptors on sensory nerves or immune cells. The design of novel compounds that either specifically target peripheral CB(1) receptors or display high selectivity for CB(2) receptors may offer avenues for harnessing the analgesic effect of CB receptor agonists while avoiding the central adverse events seen with cannabinoid structures. Clinical trials with such compounds are required to determine whether either approach can provide the level of analgesia required to fulfil the unmet medical need left by current therapies for chronic pain.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16004597


Dear Mr. President or Anyone Else Listening

I write to put a face to this war on medical cannabis.  There are things in life that I hope most never experience.  Having to hear the words that a loved one has cancer. Watching them slowly die from toxic chemo treatments. To see their eyes fade, the life shrinking away preparing for death.  But in all the misery there is hope from strangers. Strangers that risk their life to provide a life saving oil, one that you have deemed too harmful for the public. Despite this the oil is used and the fire in their eyes returns little by little and they come back from the brink.  The doctors say its a miracle but we know its a natural cure.  It is hard to believe that this life saving oil has no medical value when thousands have seen it with their own eyes.  Its hard to believe that this is so dangerous that it must be kept away from the public with hard consequences if obtained.  Its hard to believe that this natural cure is equated with heroin and other harmful drugs.  There are millions of silent users, including yourself, that have used it and not only survived but benefited from it.  It is not a new designer drug but has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Modern science has not unlocked all the mysteries of cannabis.  What we do know is promising and does point towards a cure for cancer as well as other illnesses.  We can not wait for modern science to figure out what millions already know.  We used to put people to death for saying the world is round, which in modern times would sound ridiculous but with cannabis prohibition restricting access to this natural cure, you are essentially condemning thousands of patients to suffer in pain or die from their illness.  We are all born of free will.  We are all born with the right to decide what is best for our own body.  Government has no business making medical and personal decisions for me or anyone else.   We should not be forced to watch our loved ones slowly and agonizingly die from government approved cancer treatments.  We should be able to pursue a natural treatment instead of only those the government pushes.  We can not stand by and watch as politics dictates how we treat our illnesses when patients lives are at stake.  We are all adults and we need to be treated that way.  We need responsible regulations.  We need to come together to ensure safe access for all. There is an opportunity here that is yours for the taking.  You can make a difference, you can right wrongs and stop the oppression of millions.  You have experienced cannabis surely you can see it is not the same as heroin or other schedule 1 drugs.  Millions of lives have been changed forever for simple possession.  Countless families turned upside down over a plant.  Its time for a change, its time for legalization!

Take Action Now!

We’re Fed Up! – An Open Letter From 30,000,000 Marijuana Smokers Who Vote

I found this post while researching and wanted to share:

Because of our diversity and direct democracy, California has always been a “test state” for many new ideas and political reforms. The Federal government is now targeting California and its Medical Marijuana patients to create a test case out of us.

They are afraid to change the status quo. But it is not just Medical Marijuana patients, or even marijuana smokers they are targeting.

The people of the state of California are the ones who voted for Medical Marijuana. We did this by direct democracy, by voting to change our own laws with Proposition 215, rather than have legislators write them for us. This is the essence of a democratic republic at its best.

By attacking Medical Marijuana in the State of California, the Federal government is attacking and disrespecting the people of California. They’re effectively saying, “We don’t recognize your authority over your own lives. We want to control you and force you to use only the medicines that we approve. We don’t care about your actual health. And we really don’t want you to get the idea that you can change things by voting.”

The Feds are very afraid of direct democracy because it challenges the power of the bloated, monolithic central government. All the career politicians are afraid of what can happen when people realize the power they have. Remember the 1960s rallying cry Power To the People? We have the power and we’re not planning to give it up.

“They got the guns, but we got the numbers.” — Jim Morrison

We are tired of being persecuted and mistreated simply because of our choice of medicine.

Marijuana users are treated as a laughingstock, even by a president that publicly claimed to be one of us.

We are sought out, profiled, and arrested.

We are imprisoned.

We are called drug addicts and losers by our own government.

Even the most unfortunate among us — who have cancer, AIDS, MS, depression, and intractable pain of all kinds — are treated in much the same manner, sometimes even judicially murdered.

Would the American public put up with this treatment if it was happening to gay and lesbian people? To Jews? To Muslims? Certainly not!

Each of those groups have suffered persecution in the past, gotten organized, and either aroused public sensibilities about their treatment to the point where it was made socially unacceptable, or gotten laws passed or changed to insure that it wouldn’t happen again.

But we have something special that these other groups don’t have.

We outnumber them all put together.

That’s right. There are 30 million people who regularly smoke marijuana in the United States. That’s about 10% of the population.

About 5% of Americans are gay or lesbian (so 15 million in round numbers), around 5 million are Jewish, 7 million are Muslim. We could easily throw other often oppressed groups in here, such as the Sikhs, without changing the equation.

The nation’s marijuana smokers need to unite for real change.

We must get organized.

We must arouse public sensibilities about our treatment and make it socially unacceptable to laugh at medical marijuana patients as well as recreational users.

The American public must understand that we – medical marijuana patients and users – are not anonymous drug-addled strangers. We are their sons and daughters, their brothers and sisters, their fathers and mothers, their grandfathers and grandmothers.

Marijuana prohibition is a failure based on lies, bad science, and racism. Millions upon millions of people have had their lives ruined – not by the harmless cannabis plant, but by the laws, arrests, lost jobs, and denied medical treatment.

75 years of marijuana prohibition is long enough for us, as a nation, to calmly sit down and acknowledge that the experiment of making a medicinal plant illegal is unconstitutional, morally wrong, and destructive to our society. It’s time to change things to insure that it won’t happen again.

We have the organizations — NORML, ASA, MPP, and others. We have our own media: The 420 Times, High Times, Kush, Skunk, Cannabis Culture, Treating Yourself, Toke Of the Town, and plenty more. But all of us have tended to work separately. Now it is time for laser focus.

We now call upon all of these organizations and publications, and all of us – patients and caregivers and recreational smokers alike – to unite behind a single, attainable goal:

Reschedule Marijuana Out Of Category I

Doing this can be a face-saver for the Federal government. No laws need be changed, no “embarrassing” Congressional debates over “pot”. No high-level politician even has to take “the blame” for it. It just becomes a simple administrative change in a database, but it will allow open medical research and actual legal prescriptions by doctors. It’s also about time that the Federal government acknowledges that cannabis actually is an effective medicine that is safely used every day by millions of people…since they already know that.

Let’s all take the time to help them help us.

Our first step: support CA NORML’s Call The White House campaign set for Tuesday, October 11.

Our second step: sign this online petition directly to the White House to address rescheduling marijuana out of Category I.

Our third step: we will be working with these other organizations and publications to organize a National Day Of Protest to call attention to this problem.

And for heaven’s sake, vote.

(Signed)

N.B. This manifesto does not intend to minimize the oppression that these and all other minorities (including women and people of color) have suffered in the past and present in this country and elsewhere. But the point is that the oppression of marijuana patients and users is official government policy to this very day, and we must not be satisfied until it ends forever.

http://the420times.com/2011/10/were-fed-up-an-open-letter-from-30000000-marijuana-smokers-who-vote/

A Call To Action:Your Local Government

In California medical cannabis patients are under attack from not only the federal government but local governments as well.  City after city has pushed for ordinances against medical marijuana.  Some baring dispensaries and some banning growing.  Some do this out of ignorance of medical cannabis and the industry and others in fear of repercussions from the federal government.   At the local level we need to work together to create a system that will regulate medical marijuana in a fair safe manner. Below is a letter to our local city council.  I share it in hopes to spark conversations in other cities where patients are being oppressed.

To Our Local Government:

We are standing at a unique point in time.  When you look back which side will you be on?  Will it be the ignorant, stubborn side that wishes to cling to yesteryear where fear and misinformation oppressed citizens or will it be on the side that is enlightened and will one day be vindicated?  We can no longer ignore science.  We can no longer let this be a political game with innocent patients as the chips.

It is time that you step up and start fighting FOR the patient instead of against.  It is time that you team up with the patients and create a peaceful business environment.  You were elected to SERVE the people not rule.  Minority groups need to be heard too. There is too much proof out there, both in personal stories and medical science to say medical marijuana doesn’t have medicinal purposes.

We can no longer allow the federal government to dictate how the state, county or city conducts business with medical cannabis with bullying tatics.  We can no longer allow the federal government to ignore science.  We can no longer allow government, instead of science, medicine and our own judgment, to dictate what we put in our bodies and how we treat our illnesses.

These laws are turning innocent patients into criminals.  The actions taken in the form of raids, arrests, threats, monetarily and in court have destroyed lives and caused many to be condemned to a life of lower standards.  These laws and by extension all of you enforcing these laws are oppressing people.

There needs to be regulation.  There needs to be a partnership between law enforcement, the City and patients.  We need sanity back in government.  People need to be educated before swinging the mighty gavel. As a patient I want to be able to walk into a dispensary and know I am safe from criminals and the government.  I want to know that if I grow a few plants my family wont have their door knocked down and have a gun in their face.  I want to know that the officials that we elect are held to the standard of being level headed, fair and just.  I want to know that they would give consideration to 1 person the same as they would 10,000.

Prohibition and reefer madness has been going on for over 74 years.  People have been hearing lies for a long time and that has bred a lot of misconceptions, greed, violent black markets and many other things that scare people.  What they don’t realize is that prohibition has caused this.  Its going to take all of us to fix this.  Its going to take all of us taking a fair balanced look at cannabis and seeing how we can improve things.  We need to be the ones changing it together.  We will never have progress if there is fighting. It is ridiculous for innocent, lawful patients and caregivers to be punished because of misuse of federal power and the actions of criminals.  We should be allowed safe access to our voter and Dr approved medicine.

Why More Americans Support Legalization of Marijuana

Gallup Poll released yesterday showed American support for the legalization of marijuana has risen to 50%. What might have caused this surge in support and made Americans take a second look at cannabis? Have Americans finally seen what a waste the War on Drugs is? Media coverage has become more common and less taboo enabling more people to become enlightened to the many benefits of cannabis as well as the corruption and lies surrounding it. There are 16 states that have set up some sort of medical marijuana program. More doctors and medical studies have emerged that support the medical benefits of cannabis.  There is also anger in the nation at corruption and Big Pharma is one target.

We have seen several reports lately that have showed medical advancements and new knowledge of the powers of cannabis.  We have seen them not only in expected media like High Times but also on news channels ranging from local to MSNBC.  We have seen many reports of patients that cannabis has helped or cured them as well as scientists discovering why cannabis works.

16 states enacted some sort of medical marijuana program. California was the first to enact legislation and has run a medical marijuana program for 15 years.  Colorado is one state that is allowing for-profit dispensaries to operate.  Reports have shown how revenue from taxes and fees as well as the residual business that benefits are seen throughout the community.  In a time when the economy is slow its hard to ignore the fact that cannabis is a booming industry.  With more states challenging the federal government’s stand on cannabis we have this industry brought to the forefront.

Politics has affected this issue extensively.  Many times politicians are focused on their career and not on the issues that need to be addressed.  Instead they continue to follow the failed policies of the Drug War that has been failing for the last 70 plus years.  The current Obama administration has promised one thing while doing a completely opposite action.  Recently attacks from the federal government against California patients has become severe.  With many more urgent issues that need to be addressed many Americans see this use of government spending wasteful.

 

People have seen the costs associated with processing criminals for small amounts of marijuana as well as the search for marijuana grows.  In a time where everyone is scrutinizing government spending people have turned their attention to the money wasted on the War on Drugs.  The recent attacks on medical marijuana dispensaries in California have put federal government spending in the spotlight.

Although Occupy Wall St is disorganized one thing you can glean from the people is the frustration over corruption.  We have seen how Big Pharma has control over the industry.  People want affordable, quality medicine, and with more information emerging on the health risks of prescription medications as well as the up rise in addiction rates more people are looking for a natural solution.

Some other points that might explain the increase in support is the spotlight that has been shown on NYC and the racially profiled marijuana arrests, that are prevalent not only in NYC but all over the country.  In 2010 NYC spent $75 million arresting and jailing 50,000 people for possessing small amounts of marijuana.  Most of them were in their late teens or early twenties and nearly 90% of them were of color.  This is something that has caught the attention of the NAACP who has spoke out in support of legalization of marijuana.

 

With so many factors working for us there are just as many if not more working against the legalization for marijuana. There is legislation currently being processed  HR 2306: The Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2011 which you can request your representative to support.  There is also a proposed ballot that has support of private citizens, celebrities, law enforcement and judges.  Its called the Regulate Marijuana Like Wine Act of 2012.  Now is our opportunity to change history and right a wrong.  Reefer madness and all the ridiculous claims against cannabis have had their claim on Americans for far too long.  Now is the time to take a second look at cannabis.  Now is the time to act and help legalize a natural safe alternative!

Cash “Cashy” Hyde: Children’s Cancer and Cannabis

Hearing your child has cancer is one of the worst things a parent can be faced with.  Watching your child go through chemo can be a horrifying experience in itself.  When news broke that a father was treating his son’s cancer with cannabis people were shocked.  There was reactions all over the board but we watched as the oil worked.  Cashy, as he is known has been diagnosed with Malignant and Aggressive Cancer classified as a PNET Brain Tumor.  He was able to replace the toxic drugs he was on with cannabis oil instead.  Below are studies that show how cannabis treats Brain Tumors.  With more research we can prove that cannabis does have medicinal value and can greatly aid or cure many ailments.  These are published medical studies that I encourage you to research and share your findings with everyone.  Spread the truth!
Information gathered by David Worrell edited by Cherry Girl
Please visit the Cashy Hyde Foundation Website for more on this amazing little boy!   

Hypothesis: Cannabinoid Therapy For the Treatment of Gliomas?
‎”Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of glioma cells in culture… In addition, cannabinoid treatment inhibits angiogenesis of gliomas in vivo. Remarkably, cannabinoids kill glioma cells selectively and can protect non-transformed glial cells from death. These and other findings reviewed here might set the basis for a potential use of cannabinoids in the management of gliomas.”
“Hypothesis: cannabinoid therapy for the treatment of gliomas?”
Velasco G, Galve-Roperh I, Sánchez C, Blázquez C, Guzmán M.
SourceDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, Avenida Complutense, sn, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract
Gliomas, in particular glioblastoma multiforme or grade IV astrocytoma, are the most frequent class of malignant primary brain tumours and one of the most aggressive forms of cancer. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme are usually ineffective or just palliative. During the last few years, several studies have shown that cannabinoids-the active components of the plant Cannabis sativa and their derivatives–slow the growth of different types of tumours, including gliomas, in laboratory animals. Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of glioma cells in culture via sustained ceramide accumulation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and Akt inhibition. In addition, cannabinoid treatment inhibits angiogenesis of gliomas in vivo. Remarkably, cannabinoids kill glioma cells selectively and can protect non-transformed glial cells from death. These and other findings reviewed here might set the basis for a potential use of cannabinoids in the management of gliomas.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15275820

A Pilot Clinical Study of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol In Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme
‎”Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids inhibit tumour growth and angiogenesis.The primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of intracranial THC administration.Cannabinoid delivery was safe and could be achieved without overt psychoactive effects.The fair safety profile of THC, together with its antiproliferative action on tumour cells reported here and in other studies, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”
‎A pilot clinical study of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Guzmán M, Duarte MJ, Blázquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, Sánchez C, Velasco G, González-Feria L. Source Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain. mgp@bbm1.ucm.es

Abstract
Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids inhibit tumour growth and angiogenesis in animal models, so their potential application as antitumoral drugs has been suggested. However, the antitumoral effect of cannabinoids has never been tested in humans. Here we report the first clinical study aimed at assessing cannabinoid antitumoral action, specifically a pilot phase I trial in which nine patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme were administered THC intratumoraly. The patients had previously failed standard therapy (surgery and radiotherapy) and had clear evidence of tumour progression. The primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of intracranial THC administration. We also evaluated THC action on the length of survival and various tumour-cell parameters. A dose escalation regimen for THC administration was assessed. Cannabinoid delivery was safe and could be achieved without overt psychoactive effects. Median survival of the cohort from the beginning of cannabinoid administration was 24 weeks (95% confidence interval: 15-33). Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited tumour-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased tumour-cell Ki67 immunostaining when administered to two patients. The fair safety profile of THC, together with its possible antiproliferative action on tumour cells reported here and in other studies, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2360617/?tool=pubmed

Cannabinoids and Gliomas
“Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L., inhibit the growth of different types of tumor cells, including glioma cells. Cannabinoids seem to be selective antitumoral compounds, as they kill glioma cells, but not their non-transformed astroglial counterparts. On the basis of these preclinical findings, a pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme has been recently run. The good safety profile of THC, together with its growth-inhibiting action on tumor cells, justifies the setting up of future trials aimed at evaluating the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”
Cannabinoids and gliomas. Velasco G, Carracedo A, Blázquez C, Lorente M, Aguado T, Haro A, Sánchez C, Galve-Roperh I, Guzmán M.
Source Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract
Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L., act in the body by mimicking endogenous substances–the endocannabinoids–that activate specific cell surface receptors. Cannabinoids exert various palliative effects in cancer patients. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit the growth of different types of tumor cells, including glioma cells, in laboratory animals. They do so by modulating key cell signaling pathways, mostly the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, thereby inducing antitumoral actions such as the apoptotic death of tumor cells and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Of interest, cannabinoids seem to be selective antitumoral compounds, as they kill glioma cells, but not their non-transformed astroglial counterparts. On the basis of these preclinical findings, a pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme has been recently run. The good safety profile of THC, together with its possible growth-inhibiting action on tumor cells, justifies the setting up of future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952650

Cannabinoids As Potential New Therapy For the Treatment of Gliomas
“Gliomas constitute the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors. Current standard therapeutic strategies (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics) for their treatment are only palliative and survival diagnosis is normally 6-12 months. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of nontransformed counterparts. A pilot clinical trial on patients with glioblastoma multiforme demonstrated their good safety profile together and remarkable antitumor effects, and may set the basis for further studies aimed at better evaluating the potential anticancer activity of cannabinoids.”
Cannabinoids as potential new therapy for the treatment of gliomas.
Parolaro D, Massi P. Source Department of Structural & Functional Biology, Pharmacology Section, Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via A da Giussano 10, Busto Arsizio (VA), Italy. daniela.parolaro@uninsubria.it

Abstract
Gliomas constitute the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors. Current standard therapeutic strategies (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics, e.g., temozolomide, carmustin or carboplatin) for their treatment are only palliative and survival diagnosis is normally 6-12 months. The development of new therapeutic strategies for the management of gliomas is therefore essential. Interestingly, cannabinoids have been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on a wide spectrum of cells in culture. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed a great potency in reducing glioma tumor growth either in vitro or in animal experimental models, curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intratecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Moreover, cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of nontransformed counterparts. A pilot clinical trial on patients with glioblastoma multiforme demonstrated their good safety profile together and remarkable antitumor effects, and may set the basis for further studies aimed at better evaluating the potential anticancer activity of cannabinoids.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088200

The Stress-Regulated Protein P8 Mediates Cannabinoid-Induced Apoptosis of Tumor Cells
‎”One of the most exciting areas of current research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential application of these compounds as antitumoral drugs. Here, we describe the signaling pathway that mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.We identify the stress-regulated protein p8 as an essential mediator of cannabinoid antitumoral action. Activation of this pathway may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor growth.”
The stress-regulated protein p8 mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Carracedo A, Lorente M, Egia A, Blázquez C, García S, Giroux V, Malicet C, Villuendas R, Gironella M, González-Feria L, Piris MA, Iovanna JL, Guzmán M, Velasco G. Source Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract
One of the most exciting areas of current research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential application of these compounds as antitumoral drugs. Here, we describe the signaling pathway that mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. By using a wide array of experimental approaches, we identify the stress-regulated protein p8 (also designated as candidate of metastasis 1) as an essential mediator of cannabinoid antitumoral action and show that p8 upregulation is dependent on de novo-synthesized ceramide. We also observe that p8 mediates its apoptotic effect via upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes ATF-4, CHOP, and TRB3. Activation of this pathway may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor growth.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16616335

Down-Regulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 in Gliomas: A New Marker of Cannabinoid Antitumoral Activity?
“Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L., inhibit tumor growth by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We evaluated the effects of cannabinoids on the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which play critical roles in the acquisition of migrating and invasive capacities by tumor cells. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) down-regulated TIMP-1. As TIMP-1 up-regulation is associated with high malignancy and negative prognosis of numerous cancers, TIMP-1 down-regulation may be a hallmark of cannabinoid-induced inhibition of glioma progression.”
Down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in gliomas: a new marker of cannabinoid antitumoral activity? Blázquez C, Carracedo A, Salazar M, Lorente M, Egia A, González-Feria L, Haro A, Velasco G, Guzmán M. Source Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract
Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L. and their derivatives, inhibit tumor growth in laboratory animals by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. It has also been reported that cannabinoids inhibit tumor cell invasiveness, but the molecular targets of this cannabinoid action remain elusive. Here we evaluated the effects of cannabinoids on the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which play critical roles in the acquisition of migrating and invasive capacities by tumor cells. Local administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis, down-regulated TIMP-1 expression in mice bearing subcutaneous gliomas, as determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. This cannabinoid-induced inhibition of TIMP-1 expression in gliomas (i) was mimicked by JWH-133, a selective CB(2) cannabinoid receptor agonist that is devoid of psychoactive side effects, (ii) was abrogated by fumonisin B1, a selective inhibitor of ceramide synthesis de novo, and (iii) was also evident in two patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma). THC also depressed TIMP-1 expression in cultures of various human glioma cell lines as well as in primary tumor cells obtained from a glioblastoma multiforme patient. This action was prevented by pharmacological blockade of ceramide biosynthesis and by knocking-down the expression of the stress protein p8. As TIMP-1 up-regulation is associated with high malignancy and negative prognosis of numerous cancers, TIMP-1 down-regulation may be a hallmark of cannabinoid-induced inhibition of glioma progression.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17675107

Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion By Cannabinoids Via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1
‎”Cannabinoids, in addition to having palliative benefits in cancer therapy, have been associated with anticarcinogenic effects. Increased expression of TIMP-1 mediates an anti-invasive effect of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids may therefore offer a therapeutic option in the treatment of highly invasive cancers.”
Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.
Ramer R, Hinz B. Source Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 70, Rostock D-18057, Germany.

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids, in addition to having palliative benefits in cancer therapy, have been associated with anticarcinogenic effects. Although the antiproliferative activities of cannabinoids have been intensively investigated, little is known about their effects on tumor invasion.

METHODS: Matrigel-coated and uncoated Boyden chambers were used to quantify invasiveness and migration, respectively, of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells that had been treated with cannabinoids (the stable anandamide analog R(+)-methanandamide [MA] and the phytocannabinoid delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) in the presence or absence of antagonists of the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors or of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) or inhibitors of p38 or p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting were used to assess the influence of cannabinoids on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The role of TIMP-1 in the anti-invasive action of cannabinoids was analyzed by transfecting HeLa, human cervical carcinoma (C33A), or human lung carcinoma cells (A549) cells with siRNA targeting TIMP-1. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: Without modifying migration, MA and THC caused a time- and concentration-dependent suppression of HeLa cell invasion through Matrigel that was accompanied by increased expression of TIMP-1. At the lowest concentrations tested, MA (0.1 microM) and THC (0.01 microM) led to a decrease in invasion (normalized to that observed with vehicle-treated cells) of 61.5% (95% CI = 38.7% to 84.3%, P < .001) and 68.1% (95% CI = 31.5% to 104.8%, P = .0039), respectively. The stimulation of TIMP-1 expression and suppression of cell invasion were reversed by pretreatment of cells with antagonists to CB1 or CB2 receptors, with inhibitors of MAPKs, or, in the case of MA, with an antagonist to TRPV1. Knockdown of cannabinoid-induced TIMP-1 expression by siRNA led to a reversal of the cannabinoid-elicited decrease in tumor cell invasiveness in HeLa, A549, and C33A cells.

CONCLUSION: Increased expression of TIMP-1 mediates an anti-invasive effect of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids may therefore offer a therapeutic option in the treatment of highly invasive cancers.”
http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/1/59.long

Cannabinoids Inhibit Glioma Cell Invasion by Down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression
‎”Local administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis, down-regulated MMP-2 expression in gliomas. As MMP-2 up-regulation is associated with high progression and poor prognosis of gliomas and many other tumors, MMP-2 down-regulation constitutes a new hallmark of cannabinoid antitumoral activity.”
Cannabinoids Inhibit Glioma Cell Invasion by Down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression Cristina Blázquez1, María Salazar1, Arkaitz Carracedo1, Mar Lorente1, Ainara Egia1, Luis González-Feria2, Amador Haro1, Guillermo Velasco1, and Manuel Guzmán1 
+ Author Affiliations 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain and 2Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain  

Abstract
Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L. and their derivatives, inhibit tumor growth in laboratory animals by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and impairing tumor angiogenesis. It has also been reported that these compounds inhibit tumor cell spreading, but the molecular targets of this cannabinoid action remain elusive. Here, we evaluated the effect of cannabinoids on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and its effect on tumor cell invasion. Local administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis, down-regulated MMP-2 expression in gliomas generated in mice, as determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and real-time quantitative PCR analyses. This cannabinoid-induced inhibition of MMP-2 expression in gliomas (a) was MMP-2–selective, as levels of other MMP family members were unaffected; (b) was mimicked by JWH-133, a CB2 cannabinoid receptor–selective agonist that is devoid of psychoactive side effects; (c) was abrogated by fumonisin B1, a selective inhibitor of ceramide biosynthesis; and (d) was also evident in two patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. THC inhibited MMP-2 expression and cell invasion in cultured glioma cells. Manipulation of MMP-2 expression by RNA interference and cDNA overexpression experiments proved that down-regulation of this MMP plays a critical role in THC-mediated inhibition of cell invasion. Cannabinoid-induced inhibition of MMP-2 expression and cell invasion was prevented by blocking ceramide biosynthesis and by knocking-down the expression of the stress protein p8. As MMP-2 up-regulation is associated with high progression and poor prognosis of gliomas and many other tumors, MMP-2 down-regulation constitutes a new hallmark of cannabinoid antitumoral activity.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116828/?tool=pubmed